National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: November 21, 2001
UI - 21240475
AU - Pagano L; Pulsoni A; Mele L; Leone G
TI - Clinical and epidemiological features of acute lymphoblastic leukemia following a previous malignancy.
SO - Leuk Lymphoma 2000 Nov;39(5-6):465-75
AD - Cattedra di Ematologia, Universita Cattolica S. Cuore, Roma, Italia. email@example.com
Secondary malignancies represent a relevant complication of chemotherapy employed for a previous cancer. Acute leukemias represent the most frequent secondary malignancy in the first decade following primary neoplasms; secondary leukemias are generally myeloid and can be preceeded by a myelodysplastic syndrome. The biological and epidemiological characteristics of secondary acute myeloid are well known and have been the subject of numerous reports and reviews in the last few years. The observation of a secondary acute lymphoblastic leukemia is considered rare, and the correlation with antecedent therapies is not definitive. Most of reported cases are single reports, and no large study has been performed to investigate the real importance of this problem. In this review we report data of the current literature on secondary acute lymphoblastic leukemia, both in adults and children, in order to analyze its incidence and clinical and laboratory features.
UI - 21240483
AU - Sahin G; Ertem U; Duru F; Birgen D; Yuksek N
TI - High prevelance of chronic magnesium deficiency in T cell lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic zinc deficiency in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant lymphoma.
SO - Leuk Lymphoma 2000 Nov;39(5-6):555-62
AD - Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital Department of Pediatric Oncology, Ankara, Turkey.
Magnesium and zinc are the elements having essential roles in regulation of cell growth, division and differentiation. There have been some studies in the literature suggesting an association between the deficiency of these elements and the development of malignant disorders. In this study hair and serum zinc and magnesium levels were investigated in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and malignant lymphoma (ML) at the time of initial diagnosis. Ten children with T-cell ALL, 10 children with B-precursor ALL, 5 children with Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL), 11 children with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), 10 children with non-Burkitt non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NBNHL) and 12 age and sex matched healthy children as a control group were included in the study. Mean hair magnesium levels in all of the groups of the patients were lower than the levels in the control group but the difference was statistically significant only in the children with T cell ALL comparable to the controls (28.9+/-3.9 microg/g and 87.6+/-18.5 microg/g respectiveley, p<0,05). Mean serum magnesium levels in all the cohorts were not significantly different than those in controls (p>0.05 in each comparison). Mean hair zinc levels in the patients with T-cell, B-precursor ALL, BL, HL, NBNHL were 103.4+/-14.6 microg/g, 100.9+/-7.8 microg/g, 91.1+/-19 microg/g, 72.5+/-9.1 microg/g, 103.2+/-12.2 microg/g respectively. Each of these levels were significantly lower than the mean hair zinc levels of the control group (141.2+/-9.6 microg/g, p<0.05 in each comparison). Although mean serum zinc levels in all of the groups were also decreased, the differences were statistically significant only in the groups with B-precursor ALL, HL and NBNHL (75.9+/-5.29 microg/dl, 68.6+/-7.3 microg/dl, 85.7+/-5.5 microg/dl respectively) when compared with controls (105.1+/-9.9 microg/dl, p<0.05 in each comparison). Hair magnesium and zinc levels showed a positive correlation with each other in all the groups (r congruent with 0.5). No significant difference was found in the mean hair/serum magnesium and zinc levels between malnourished and nonmalnourished patients. In conclusion, regarding the results of our study and previous data in the literature chronic magnesium and zinc deficiency seems to be associated with the development of ALL and malignant lymphoma in a group of patients.
UI - 21402012
AU - Cabrera ME; Campbell M; Quintana J; Undurraga MS; Ford AA; Greaves MF
TI - [Clinical significance and frequency of the 11q23/MLL genetic molecular alteration in Chilean infants with acute leukemia]
SO - Rev Med Chil 2001 Jun;129(6):634-42
AD - Departamento de Medicina, Campus Oriente, Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Acute leukemia (AL) in infants generally shows distinctive biologic features and has a poor prognosis. AIM: To study the frequency of the cytogenetic alteration of 11q23 chromosome or the recombination of MLL gene in infants less than 18 months old, with acute leukemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 37 cases of AL in infants less than 18 months of age diagnosed in Chile from 1989 to 1999. The clinical features and cytogenetic/molecular defects of 11q23MLL gene rearrangement and their influence in prognosis were determined. RESULTS: There were 18 cases of acute Lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) characterized by female sex (67%) high presenting leukocyte count (median 99 x 109/L), blast cells with a CD10 negative phenotype (50%) and 11q23/MLL rearrangement (39%). Molecular abnormalities of 11q23 were significantly associated with adverse prognosis, with an event free survival (EFS) of only 14 +/- 12%. Interestingly, infants with germ line 11q23 had a very good outcome with an EFS of 73 +/- 11% (p < 0.025). There were 19 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) characterized by male sex (63%) high leukocyte count (median 93 x 109/L), FAB-MS morphology (53%) and 11q23/MLL rearrangement (53%). EFS was very poor, 20 +/- 9% and 33 +/- 4% for rearranged and germinal group respectively (p = NS), due to a high mortality rate during the first month of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that Chilean ALL infants with 11q23 abnormalities have a very poor prognosis. However those with germinal state can enjoy a prolonged disease free survival with the current treatment protocols.
UI - 21411470
AU - Barata JT; Cardoso AA; Nadler LM; Boussiotis VA
TI - Interleukin-7 promotes survival and cell cycle progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by down-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1).
SO - Blood 2001 Sep 1;98(5):1524-31
AD - Department of Adult Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
In normal T-cell development interleukin-7 (IL-7) functions as an antiapoptotic factor by regulating bcl-2 expression in immature thymocytes and mature T cells. Similar to what occurs in normal immature thymocytes, prevention of spontaneous apoptosis by IL-7 in precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells correlates with up-regulation of bcl-2. IL-7 is also implicated in leukemogenesis because IL-7 transgenic mice develop lymphoid malignancies, suggesting that IL-7 may regulate the generation and expansion of malignant cells. This study shows that in the presence of IL-7, T-ALL cells not only up-regulated bcl-2 expression and escaped apoptosis but also progressed in the cell cycle, resulting in sequential induction of cyclin D2 and cyclin A. Down-regulation of p27kip1 was mandatory for IL-7-mediated cell cycle progression and temporally coincided with activation of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)4 and cdk2 and hyperphosphorylation of Rb. Strikingly, forced expression of p27kip1 in T-ALL cells not only prevented cell cycle progression but also reversed IL-7-mediated up-regulation of bcl-2 and promotion of viability. These results show for the first time that a causative link between IL-7-mediated proliferation and p27kip1 down-regulation exists in malignant T cells. Moreover, these results suggest that p27kip1 may function as a tumor suppressor gene not only because it is a negative regulator of cell cycle progression but also because it is associated with induction of apoptosis of primary malignant cells.
UI - 21450469
AU - Smith A; Robson L; Heaps LS; Sharma P; Dunlop L; Bhave A; Bradstock K
TI - Routine fluorescence in situ hybridization with the MLL probe does not reliably detect two separate signals on one chromosome 11 in patients with trisomy 11.
SO - Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2001 Sep;129(2):173-6
AD - Department of Cytogenetics, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Locked Bag 4001, NSW 2145, Westmead, Australia. email@example.com
Trisomy 11 is considered to be a rare cytogenetic abnormality in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Duplication of the MLL gene (localized to 11q23) has been found on one chromosome 11 in patients with trisomy 11, detected by DNA techniques. We investigated copy number of MLL in seven patients with trisomy 11 to see if duplication could be assessed by the detection of two separate signals on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). If so, FISH could provide a quick easy screen of MLL status in routine referrals. The diagnostic bone marrow aspirate showed trisomy 11 in five adult patients with MDS/AML as part of a complex karyotype and in two children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) as part of a hyperdiploid karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization utilized the suspensions remaining after the cytogenetic harvest. Two FISH probes were used on the adult patients (MLL - Oncor and Vysis), and one (Vysis) for the two children with ALL. Analysis showed that the proximity of the two putative hybridization signals made it very difficult to unambiguously see two separate signals. The hybridisations (Oncor probe) were convincing of MLL duplication (namely two distinct signals) in only one patient, but this was not borne out with the other MLL probe (Vysis). We conclude that conventional FISH with MLL probe is not suited to act as a screen for MLL duplication in patients with trisomy 11.
UI - 21452377
AU - Chessells JM; Harrison G; Richards SM; Bailey CC; Hill FG; Gibson BE;
TI - Hann IM Down's syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: clinical features and response to treatment.
SO - Arch Dis Child 2001 Oct;85(4):321-5
AD - Molecular Haematology Unit, Camelia Botnar Laboratories, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WCIN 1EH, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIMS: To examine the clinical and biological features of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children with Down's syndrome (DS), to compare their survival with other children, and to determine if entry to trials and survival has improved. METHODS: Examination of presenting features and response to treatment in patients treated in two consecutive national trials, MRC UKALL X and XI. RESULTS: The proportion of children with DS was significantly higher in UKALL XI (1.9%) than UKALL X (0.9%). Children with DS tended to be under 10 years and to have the common ALL subtype. Cytogenetic analysis showed that favourable features, such as high hyperdiploidy and t(12;21) were less frequent but also that there was a lack of translocations associated with a poor prognosis. Children with DS showed no increase in risk of relapse at any site but their survival and event free survival were inferior to other children. These results were caused by an increased number of infective deaths during remission (11% compared to 2%). At five years overall survival was 73% in DS children compared with 82% in other children; event free survival was 53% compared to 63% in non-DS children. CONCLUSIONS: Entry of children with DS to national trials has increased and survival has improved. However they remain at risk of relapse and also of treatment related mortality. These findings emphasise the need for both intensive chemotherapy and optimal supportive care.
UI - 21262968
AU - Miglino M; Grasso R; Pietrasanta D; Palmisano GL; Berisso G; Clavio M;
TI - Pierri I; Santini G; Canepa L; Gobbi M Detection of minimal residual disease in B-lymphoproliferative disorders: a three step SSCP-PCR method.
SO - J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2001 Mar;20(1):95-101
AD - Dept. of Internal Medicine, Azienda Ospedale S. Martino e Cliniche Universitarie convenzionate, Genova, Italy.
The most recent therapeutic approaches can improve the outcome of B-cell neoplasia. By PCR analysis we amplify tumor specific DNA sequences of clonal IgH rearrangement from a limited number of malignant cells against a background of normal B cells. Recently described PCR based techniques for tracking minimal residual disease (MRD) in B lymphoproliferative disorders have given promising but discordant results, with significant variations in the sensitivity and specificity of the procedures. We have developed a three step single strand conformational polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (SSCP-PCR) strategy which is able to detect clonal malignant cells in B lymphoproliferative disorders at a frequency as low as 1 in 10(6) cells. Since this method is simple, rapid, reliable and as specific as ASO-PCR, it could be especially useful in monitoring patients affected by B lymphoproliferative disorders in complete haematological and immunophenotypic remission.
UI - 21305413
AU - Martin Ramos M; Fernandez Martinez F; Barreiro Miranda E
TI - [Cytogenetic abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia]
SO - An Esp Pediatr 2001 Jul;55(1):45-52
AD - Servicio de Genetica, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain. email@example.com
Cytogenetic analysis of blast cells in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has led to the recognition of specific non-random chromosomal abnormalities with prognostic value. Most patients with ALL show karyotype abnormalities, either in chromosome number (ploidy) or as structural changes such as translocations, inversions, or deletions. Many of these chromosomal alterations are associated with specific cytomorphological and immunological types. The greatest impact on patient management has been the finding that the cytogenetic result is an independent prognostic indicator. Certain karyotypes are associated with a favorable prognosis while others indicate a poor outcome. This has led to the administration of alternative therapies according to risk. For instance, hyperdiploidy with a modal chromosome number of 51 or greater, which represents 25-30 % of all cases of ALL, has proved to have the most favorable prognosis among established ploidy groups, whilst translocations such as the Philadelphia translocation t(9;22) and t(4;11) are associated with a poor prognosis. This study focuses on the most important chromosomal abnormalities found in childhood ALL and their prognostic and therapeutic implications.
UI - 21390873
AU - Wang J; Wang Q; Chen X
TI - [Study on the sensitization of acute myeloid leukemia cell to daunorubicin by recombinant human interleukin-3]
SO - Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 1999 Jan;20(1):30-2
AD - Department of Hematology, Xin Qiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 630038.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of recombinant human interleukin-3(rhIL-3) on the sensitization of acute myeloid leukemia(AML) cells to daunorubicin(DNR). METHODS: AML cells were cultured in a DNR-containing medium supplemented or not with rhIL-3. CFU-AML was assayed by semi-solid culture, proliferation and differentiation of AML cells were assayed by flow cytometry, cytomorphology and benzidine staining. Intracellular DNR concentration was measured by spectrophotofluorometry. RESULTS: rhIL-3 could enhance the proliferation but not differentiation of AML cells in vitro, and had no effect on DNR intake and exclusion of AML cells while enhancing their sensitivity to DNR. CONCLUSION: rhIL-3 combined with DNR might improve the therapeutic effect of AML.
UI - 21390866
AU - Zheng H; Zhao X; Geng L
TI - [Relationship between the bone marrow cell proliferation and the prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia]
SO - Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 1999 Jan;20(1):7-9
AD - Beijing Children's Hospital, Beijing 100045.
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of proliferative antigens in leukemic cells and the relationship between the cell proliferation activity and the prognosis. METHODS: The labeling index (LI) of CD71, Ki-67 and PCNA in normal and leukemic cells were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In normal children, the LI of CD71, Ki-67 and PCNA was (32.18 +/- 16.66)%, (4.82 +/- 9.27)% and (19.69 +/- 25.11)%, respectively, while in ALL children, which was (33.66 +/- 21.52)%, (32.14 +/- 23.59)% and (47.46 +/- 30.96)%, respectively. The PCNA LI of leukemia cells was (47.46 +/- 30.96)% and (27.28 +/- 12.51)% when patients was at presentation and remitted for 3 years, respectively, and was (52.59 +/- 32.00)% and at presentation in 28 CCR children and and (26.94 +/- 14.48)% in 7 high-risk group ALL children (F = 8.877, P < 0.01), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proliferation, LI of leukemic cells was higher than that of normal cells, and reduced to normal level after treatment. The higher PCNA proliferation of untreated cells was a favourable marker for prognosis.
UI - 21169678
AU - Fujiwara H; Eizuru Y; Matsumoto T; Kukita T; Imaizumi R; Kawada H;
TI - Ohtsubo H; Matsushita K; Arima N; Tei C The significance of cytomegalovirus infection over the clinical course of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
SO - Microbiol Immunol 2001;45(1):97-100
AD - First Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.
The significance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections developed over the clinical course of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) were evaluated in relation to the patient survival rate, ATL activity and immunocompetent cells. ATLL patients with CMV infections on admission exhibited a poor survival rate, while patients with CMV infections at any time after admission survived longer than those not infected with this virus. ATLL patients who exhibited a numbers of CMV infection on admission showed higher ATL activity and had lower numbers of CD8-positive and CD56-positive cells than those who developed CMV infections at any time after admission. Therefore, it appears likely that patients with CMV infections on admission were in an immunosuppressive state due to aggressive ATL activity.
UI - 21377985
AU - Yashiki S; Fujiyoshi T; Arima N; Osame M; Yoshinaga M; Nagata Y; Tara M;
TI - Nomura K; Utsunomiya A; Hanada S; Tajima K; Sonoda S HLA-A*26, HLA-B*4002, HLA-B*4006, and HLA-B*4801 alleles predispose to adult T cell leukemia: the limited recognition of HTLV type 1 tax peptide anchor motifs and epitopes to generate anti-HTLV type 1 tax CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
SO - AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2001 Jul 20;17(11):1047-61
AD - Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8520, Japan.
Genetic risk for adult T cell leukemia (ATL) has been implicated by ethnic and familial segregation of ATL patients from HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). To clarify the genetic risk for ATL, we characterized HLA class I alleles of ATL patients and analyzed the anchor motifs of HTLV-1 peptides binding to HLA class I molecules, using 291 lines of anti-HTLV-1 CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro with a total of 165 synthetic peptides for HTLV-1 Tax and Env proteins. Allele frequencies of HLA-A*26, B*4002, B*4006, and B*4801 were significantly higher in ATL patients than in HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers in southern Japan. CD8(+) CTL analysis revealed the HTLV-1 Tax peptide sequence to completely lack anchor motifs of peptides binding to HLA-A*26,B*4002, and B*4006 molecules but to possess one anchor for HLA-B*4801, while the HTLV-1 Env peptide sequence had many anchor motifs for HLA-A*26, B*4002, B*4006, and B*4801 molecules. Most ATL patients featured heterozygous HLA class I alleles composed of HLA-A*26, B*4002, B*4006, and B*4801, with a lower number of HTLV-1 Tax peptide anchor motifs and epitopes generating anti-HTLV-1 Tax CD8(+) CTLs than individuals possessing other HLA alleles. The relationship between Tax epitope and ATL incidence was verified by the significantly decreased number of HTLV-1 Tax epitopes in ATL patients compared with asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (p < 0.01) as well as late onset ATL patients (p < 0.001). These results indicate that HLA-A*26, B*4002, B*4006, and B*4801 alleles predispose to ATL because of the limited recognition of HTLV-1 Tax peptide anchor motifs and epitopes capable of generating anti-HTLV-1 Tax CD8(+) CTLs.
UI - 21443185
AU - Tsang KS; Li CK; Chik KW; Shing MM; Tsoi WC; Ng MH; Lau TT; Leung Y;
TI - Yuen PM TEL/AML1 rearrangement and the prognostic significance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Hong Kong.
SO - Am J Hematol 2001 Oct;68(2):91-8
AD - Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Division, Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China.
The TEL/AML1 rearrangement has been implicated as an independent good prognostic factor in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We examined TEL/AML1 using nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and correlated TEL/AML1 with cytogenetics and immunophenotypes in 75 consecutively analyzed Chinese children with ALL in Hong Kong. TEL/AML1 was detected in 17.9% (12/67) B-lineage ALL at diagnosis but not in 8 T-ALL children or in 34 adults with ALL. E2A/PBX1, MLL/AF4, and BCR/ABL were not found in TEL/AML1+ patients. Coexpression of cross-lineage antigens was associated with TEL/AML1 gene fusion (p = 0.032), with CD13 in 80% (4/5) TEL/AML1+ cohort. Chromosomal abnormalities were demonstrated in 50% of the TEL/AML1+ ALL; however, a cryptic t(12;21) was not detected in these cases. Hyperdiploidy of 47-48 chromosomes was encountered in 25%. Deletion of 12p resulting in the loss of the normal allele of TEL and nonspecific del(6q) were noted in 8% (1/12) and 25% (3/12) of the TEL/AML1+ children, respectively. Rapid clearance of TEL/AML1 was noted in 50% of the patients on completion of the induction therapy; however, 16.7% (2/12) TEL/AML1+ ALL relapsed at a mean of 48.6 months from diagnosis (25 months off-therapy). The incidence of relapses of TEL/AML1+ ALL was comparable to that at diagnosis in B-lineage ALL (14.3% [2/14] vs. 17.9% [12/67], p > 0.05). The relapse rate in TEL/AML1+ ALL was similar to that of TEL/AML1- ALL (16.7% [2/12] vs. 20.6% [13/63], p > 0.05). The duration of first complete remission in TEL/AML1+ ALL was significantly longer as compared to TEL/AML1- ALL (mean [range] in month: 48.6 [47.2 - 50] vs 14.6 [2.9 - 42.3], p < 0.0001). Irrespective of TEL/AML1 rearrangement, the probabilities of the five-year overall survival and the event-free survival of patients were comparable (overall survival: 100% vs. 72.3%, p = 0.166 and event-free survival: 60% vs. 56.2%, p = 0.343). Our data would not suggest a less aggressive treatment regimen for TEL/AML1+ ALL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 21466974
AU - Tomova A; Babusikova O
TI - Shifts in expression of immunological cell markers in relapsed acute leukemia.
SO - Neoplasma 2001;48(3):164-8
AD - Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. firstname.lastname@example.org
The immunophenotypic features of leukemia blast cells were analyzed in a group of 156 patients with different immunological subtypes of acute leukemia, both lymphoblastic and myeloblastic. Of the 58 patients for whom immunologic studies were performed at relapse, 42 (72%) showed changes in the expression of immunologic markers. The minor shifts in B-ALL were observed most frequently and concerned of the loss of CD34 antigen in 17 cases and the loss of cALLA (CD10) in 7 cases of B-ALL at the first relapse. The acquisition of cell markers was not frequently observed, only in four cases could be seen. HLA-DR molecules remained relatively constant from diagnosis to relapse. In 2 from 3 T-ALL cases the loss of CD1 and CD2 markers, respectively, was noticed at relapse. CD5 and CD7 markers were relatively stable. In AML cases at relapse the acquisition of CD13 marker (in 4 from 7 cases) was often observed. It was interesting that comparing to the B-ALL cases, the loss of CD34 marker in AML cases was stray. In one case the acquisition of this antigen at relapse was actually observed. The major interlineage shift was detected in one case of B-ALL, that was newly diagnosed at relapse as AML M4 and presented different cytogenetic features. This case provides strong connection with the treatment, as more recently epipodophyllotoxins (vumon in our patient) have been linked to the development of secondary AML associated with a shorter latency period. The immunophenotypic changes frequently occur at relapse in all acute leukemia types. The shifts (loss or acquisition) in expression of individual markers at relapse are bound with the first diagnosis and may have a relationship to the treatment and are important for correct assessment of minimal residual disease.
UI - 21466977
AU - Pituch-Noworolska A; Hajto B; Mazur B; Sonta-Jakimczyk D; Balwierz W;
TI - Janota-Krawczyk E; Kowalska H; Malinowska I; Modzelewska M; Wasik M Expression of CD20 on acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in children.
SO - Neoplasma 2001;48(3):182-7
AD - Department of Clinical Immunology, Polish-American Children Hospital, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Cracow. email@example.com
CD20 determinant expressed on B precursors is associated with regulation of proliferation, apoptosis and maturation of these cells. The acute lymphoblastic leukemia "common" type (cALL) based on expression of CD20 is subdivided in type I and II. However, the clinical significance of CD20 expression on cALL and significance of cALL type I and II discernment are not fully elucidated. The association of CD20 expression with the expression of multidrug resistance molecule (MDR), CD34, atypical immunophenotypes of leukemia cells and response to induction therapy were determined in the group of 147 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) B progenitor type (ALL-proB -14 patients) and common type (cALL-133 patients). The expression of CD20 on leukemia cells was studied routinely at diagnosis before the therapy. This expression was noted on leukemia cells of 6 ALL-proB patients (42.8%) and 66 cALL patients (49.6%). The expression of CD20 showed no association with the expression of CD34, CD22 and MDR. The reverse association was observed between CD20 expression and the presence of co-expression of myeloid (CD13, CD33, CD65, CD15) and T lymphoid determinants (CD2, CD5, CD7) on leukemia cells. The effect of induction therapy analyzed as time of blast cells cytoreduction in peripheral blood and time of reaching the complete remission showed the slower clearance of peripheral blood from blast cells associated with expression of CD20. There was no association of CD20 expression with the time of reaching the hematological remission. The above results suggested a "protective" role of CD20 against co-expression of other determinants (myeloid and lymphoid) and no association with the results of induction therapy.
UI - 21341701
AU - Goto Y; Yue L; Yokoi A; Nishimura R; Uehara T; Koizumi S; Saikawa Y
TI - A novel single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the human dihydrofolate reductase gene with enhanced expression.
SO - Clin Cancer Res 2001 Jul;7(7):1952-6
AD - Department of Pediatrics, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641, Japan.
A novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 829C-->T in the 3'-untranslated region of the human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene transcript, was identified in the study population of 37 patients with childhood leukemias/lymphomas and 83 healthy Japanese children. Frequencies of the DHFR 829C/C, 829C/T, and 829T/T genotypes were 83.8, 10.8, and 5.4%, respectively, in the cases and 74.7, 19.3, and 6.0% in the controls, showing no significant difference in genotype frequencies between the cases and controls. When determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis, the highest expression of the DHFR transcript was demonstrated in the samples with a DHFR 829T/T polymorphism (P < 0.001). Direct association of the presence of the SNP with methotrexate-related adverse events in each patient was not demonstrated in this limited analysis. These data suggest that the novel DHFR 829 polymorphism is associated with a positive role in gene expression and provide evidence of a functional SNP in the 3' regulatory region of the gene.
UI - 21396248
AU - Walz CM; Nakamura M; Fukunaga T; Jasiewicz Y; Edler L; Schlehofer JR;
TI - Tanaka Y Reduced prevalence of serum antibodies against adeno-associated virus type 2 in patients with adult T-cell leukaemia lymphoma.
SO - J Med Virol 2001 Sep;65(1):185-9
AD - Angewandte Tumorvirologie F0100, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg, Germany.
Seroepidemiological studies have shown previously that cancer patients are less likely to have antibodies against the tumour suppressive adeno-associated virus (AAV) than control groups. To examine the influence of AAV infection on the development of adult T-cell leukaemia lymphoma (ATLL), an endemic disease in Southern Japan that is caused by infection with the human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I), the prevalence of serum antibodies to AAV type 2 (AAV-2) was tested in healthy HTLV-I carriers (n = 39) and patients with ATLL (n = 31). The results showed a significant difference in AAV-2 seropositivity between the two groups: Only 29% of the ATLL patients had IgG antibodies against AAV-2, whereas 84.6% of the healthy HTLV-I carriers were seropositive. Analysis of total serum IgG and antibodies against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA1 antigen showed that the lack of AAV antibodies in patients was not due to an ATLL-associated immune deficiency. The lower level of AAV-2 seropositivity in ATLL-patients may indicate that AAV-2 antibody-positive HTLV-I carriers might be less likely to develop ATLL or that loss of AAV-2 antibodies may parallel the development of disease. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 21456602
AU - Hokland P; Pallisgaard N
TI - [Molecular biology in acute lymphoblastic leukemia]
SO - Ugeskr Laeger 2001 Aug 27;163(35):4721-4
AD - Arhus Amtssygehus, Arhus Universitetshospital, haematologisk afdeling, immunhaematologisk laboratorium. firstname.lastname@example.org
UI - 21281051
AU - Nysom K; Holm K; Hertz H; Muller J; Fleischer Michaelsen K; Molgaard C
TI - Bone mass after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood.
SO - J Clin Oncol 2001 Jun 1;19(11):2970-1
UI - 21277020
AU - Benko I; Kovacs P; Szegedi I; Megyeri A; Kiss A; Balogh E; Olah E;
TI - Kappelmayer J; Kiss C Effect of myelopoietic and pleiotropic cytokines on colony formation by blast cells of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
SO - Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2001 May;363(5):499-508
AD - Department of Pharmacology, Medical School, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Hungary. email@example.com
The aim of this study was to see whether pleiotropic or myeloid hematopoietic growth factors, which do not stimulate normal lymphoid cells, can induce proliferation of blast cells of the acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) of childhood. Bone marrow cells of 13 children with untreated ALL (nine common ALL, two myeloid antigen positive ALL and two early T-cell ALL) formed colonies of leukemic blast cells in primary methylcellulose cultures. Spontaneous growth was observed in three of 13 cases, whereas phytohemagglutinin-stimulated leukocyte conditioned medium (PHA-LCM), a conventional source of various natural human cytokines, induced colony formation in ten of 13 cases. A similar rate of responsiveness was seen with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF); a combination of these three cytokines induced colony formation in all cases studied. The effect of these growth factors on colony formation seemed to be dose-dependent in some cases. Of the stimuli studied, GM-CSF induced the smallest number of colonies, whereas the effects of G-CSF, SCF and PHA-LCM were similar in this respect. Combination of cytokines proved to be even more efficient in inducing clonal proliferation of leukemic lymphoblasts. In double combinations, G-CSF and GM-CSF as well as G-CSF and SCF were able to potentiate each other's effects. Triple combination of these cytokines mediated the most potent growth stimulus. Our results demonstrate that myeloid and pleiotropic cytokines are able to stimulate clonal proliferation of pediatric leukemic lymphoblasts. This may present a potential hazard to children with ALL while on adjuvant therapy with hematopoietic growth factors. In vitro colony assays performed prior to or in parallel with the administration of hematopoietic growth factors to ALL patients may help to forecast their possible effects on leukemic cells in vivo.
UI - 21314728
AU - Landier W
TI - Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: current perspectives.
SO - Oncol Nurs Forum 2001 Jun;28(5):823-33; quiz 834-5
AD - City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), including epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic classification, prognostic factors, current treatment, long-term sequelae, and nursing management. DATA SOURCES: Journal articles, books, and clinical experience. DATA SYNTHESIS: Childhood ALL is a heterogeneous disorder, and current treatment is tailored to risk factors (e.g., initial white blood count, cytogenetic properties of the leukemic blasts). Risk-directed therapy ensures that children with a higher risk of relapse receive more intensive treatment, whereas those with lower risk disease receive less toxic therapy with decreased potential for treatment-related morbidity. Quality of life in long-term survivors is a significant issue. Late sequelae of treatment can include neurocognitive difficulties, endocrine dysfunction, secondary malignancies, and cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSIONS: With risk-directed therapy, cure rates for childhood ALL continue to improve. At least 80% of children diagnosed with ALL today are expected to survive their disease. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses caring for children with ALL can have a significant impact on the children's overall health, from diagnosis through long-term follow-up. Nursing interventions encompass the domains of physical and psychosocial care, as well as patient and family education. Assisting the child and family to maintain normalcy in the face of chronic illness, as well as fostering the family's hope for the future and their belief in the child's potential for survival, are key nursing strategies that promote the child's growth, development, and psychological health.
UI - 21477933
AU - Wang C; Yao Z; Liao J; Luo Y; Ma Y; Chen G; Zhu W
TI - Clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic and ultrastructrual analyses of ATLL patients with cutaneous involvement.
SO - Chin Med J (Engl) 1999 May;112(5):461-5
AD - Department of Dermatology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study 4 cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) associated with cutaneous lesions for clinicopathology, immunophenotype, human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus DNA and their ultrastructure. At the same time, HTLV-I provirus DNA of ATLL patients were also compared with 18 cases of cutaneous lymphoma (CL), two cases of actinic reticuloid as well as two cases of lymphocytic infiltration. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry studies were carried out on the infiltrating cells using monoclonal antibodies against CD45-RO, CD20, CD68 on paraffin-embedded sections by ABC method and using monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD4 and CD8 with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on frozen sections. Skin biopsies were examined by electron microscope. Serum and bone marrow cells were tested for antibodies against HTLV-I-associated antigen by IIF, and HTLV-I provirus DNA was examined by PCR method. RESULTS: The research showed four patients with ATLL manifesting cutaneous lesions, were subsequently found with additional systemic symptoms, as extensively enlarged superficial lymph node, abnormal increased IL-2 receptor, flower-like cells in their peripheral blood and marrow. The HTLV-I provirus DNA was positive in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, cutaneous lesions and lymph node biopsy specimens by using PCR amplification of specific HTLV-I fragment while 18 cases of the CL were negative for HTLV-I. The special ultrastructure of skin lesions was also found in ATLL patients. CONCLUSIONS: The cutaneous involvement in ATLL is a type of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) but shows some differential immunological markers for differential diagnosis. The examination of HTLV-I antibodies or HTLV-I provirus DNA is necessary for diagnosis of ATLL. The ultrastructural characteristics in skin lesions of ATLL were of atypical lymphocytes and mononuclear cells invading the epidermis, and the mononuclear cells are possessing the phagocytic function and phagocytizing the degenerated epidermic cells or lymphocytes.
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