National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: November 21, 2001
UI - 21204715
AU - Ahmed NU; Shioda T; Coser KR; Ichihashi M; Ueda M
TI - Aberrant expression of MSG1 transcriptional activator in human malignant melanoma in vivo.
SO - Pigment Cell Res 2001 Apr;14(2):140-3
AD - Department of Dermatology, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.
MSG1 was originally isolated as a candidate pigmentation-related gene. MSG1 mRNA transcripts were expressed strongly in cultured human and mouse normal epidermal melanocytes, and in highly pigmented mouse melanoma cells, while its expression was very weak in cultured non-pigmented human melanoma cells. Thus, MSG1 was initially proposed to be a melanocyte-specific gene, and its possible role in pigmentation has been speculated. It was found recently that the MSG1 protein interacts functionally with Smad4, which plays a pivotal role in signal transduction of transforming growth factor-beta. In this study, we analyzed MSG1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry using human tumor samples from nevus and malignant melanoma to reveal its role in pigmentation and melanoma development in vivo. A relatively strong but heterogeneous expression of MSG1 protein was seen in melanomas compared with weak expression in nevi. In nevi, MSG1 expression was mostly confined to the pigmented region, while it was expressed in both pigmented and non-pigmented regions in melanoma. Intracellularly, MSG1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm of nevus cells, but was seen in both nuclei and cytoplasm of melanoma cells. These results support a hypothesis that MSG1 plays a role in pigmentation. It is also suggested that MSG1 may be involved in malignant transformation of pigment cells. Alternatively, the aberrant expression of MSG1 in melanoma cells might be due to the abnormal environment, including aberrant cytokine or growth factor expression, associated with melanoma formation.
UI - 21204707
AU - Bar-Eli M
TI - Gene regulation in melanoma progression by the AP-2 transcription factor.
SO - Pigment Cell Res 2001 Apr;14(2):78-85
AD - Department of Cancer Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The molecular changes associated with the transition of melanoma cells from radial growth phase (RGP) to vertical growth phase [(VGP), metastatic phenotype] are not very well defined. We previously demonstrated that expression of the cell-surface adhesion molecule MCAM/MUC18 correlates directly with the metastatic potential of human melanoma cells. In addition, the progression of human melanoma towards the metastatic phenotype is associated with loss of expression of the tyrosine-kinase receptor c-KIT. In this review, I will summarize our recent studies demonstrating that the expression of both genes is regulated by the AP-2 transcription factor. Moreover, we have observed a loss of AP-2 expression in metastatic melanoma cells. Re-expression of AP-2 in the highly metastatic A375SM cells decreased their tumorigenicity and inhibited their metastatic potential in nude mice. MCAM/MUC18 mRNA and protein expression was significantly down-regulated while c-KIT expression was up-regulated in the AP-2-transfected cells. To further investigate the role of AP-2 in the progression of human melanoma, we attempted to inactivate AP-2 in primary cutaneous melanoma by using a dominant-negative AP-2, or the AP-2B gene. Expression of AP-2B in SB-2 cells augmented their tumorigenicity in nude mice, and upregulated MMP-2 expression and activity. As AP-2 also regulates other genes that are involved in the progression of human melanoma such as E-cadherin, p21/WAF-1, HER2/neu, Bcl-2, FAS/APO-1, IGF-R-1, VEGF and the thrombin receptor (PAR-1), we therefore propose that loss of AP-2 is a crucial event in the development of malignant melanoma. In addition, the transition of melanoma cells from RGP to VGP is also associated with over-expression of the transcription factors CREB and ATF-1. The notion that the balance between AP-2 and CREB/ATF-1 expression determines the progression of melanoma cells towards the metastatic phenotype will be discussed.
UI - 21367959
AU - Obata T; Endo Y; Tanaka M; Uchida H; Matsuda A; Sasaki T
TI - Deletion mutants of human deoxycytidine kinase mRNA in cells resistant to antitumor cytosine nucleosides.
SO - Jpn J Cancer Res 2001 Jul;92(7):793-8
AD - Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-0934, Japan. email@example.com
We studied mutational events in deoxycytidine (dCyd) kinase mRNA expression, focusing on aberrant dCyd kinase mRNA, which has been frequently observed in established cell lines resistant to antitumor dCyd nucleoside analogues such as 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine (Ara-C), gemcitabine (dFdC) and 2'-C-cyano-2'-deoxy-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (CNDAC). We describe here the expression of aberrant dCyd kinase mRNAs identified as splicing mutants. These mutants included deletions of the fifth exon in CNDAC-resistant cells (originating from HT-1080 cells), of the third exon in Ara-C-resistant cells (originating from SK-MEL-28 cells) and of the fourth exon in 2'-deoxy-2'-methylidenecytidine (DMDC)-resistant cells (originating from SK-MEL-28 cells). Various nucleoside-resistant cells originating from the same parental HT-1080 cells were established. The resulting cells expressed the same mRNA with deletion of the fifth exon, and the location of splicing was independent of the type of nucleosides used for the establishment of resistant cells. The deletion of the fifth exon in dCyd kinase seems to be a target for acquisition of resistance to antitumor cytosine nucleosides. However, distinct mutations in the dCyd kinase gene seem to be associated with acquisition of resistance to different antitumor cytosine nucleosides.
UI - 21380011
AU - Bastiaens M; ter Huurne J; Gruis N; Bergman W; Westendorp R; Vermeer BJ;
TI - Bouwes Bavinck JN The melanocortin-1-receptor gene is the major freckle gene.
SO - Hum Mol Genet 2001 Aug 1;10(16):1701-8
AD - Department of Dermatology and Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.
Ephelides and solar lentigines are different types of pigmented skin lesions. Ephelides appear early in childhood and are associated with fair skin type and red hair. Solar lentigines appear with increasing age and are a sign of photodamage. Both lesions are strong risk indicators for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) gene variants are also associated with fair skin, red hair and melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MC1R gene variants, ephelides and solar lentigines. In a large case-control study, patients with melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer and subjects without a history of skin cancer were studied. In all participants, the presence of ephelides in childhood and solar lentigines by physical examination was assessed according to strict definitions. The entire coding sequence of the MC1R gene was analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis followed by sequence analyses. Carriers of one or two MC1R gene variants had a 3- and 11-fold increased risk of developing ephelides, respectively (both P < 0.0001), whereas the risk of developing severe solar lentigines was increased 1.5- and 2-fold (P = 0.035 and P < 0.0001), respectively. These associations were independent of skin type and hair color, and were comparable in patients with and without a history of skin cancer. The population attributable risk for ephelides to MC1R gene variants was 60%, i.e. 60% of the ephelides in the population was caused by MC1R gene variants. A dosage effect was found between the degree of ephelides and the number of MC1R gene variants. As nearly all individuals with ephelides were carriers of at least one MC1R gene variant, our data suggest that MC1R gene variants are necessary to develop ephelides. The results of the study also suggest that MC1R gene variants play a role, although less important, in the development of solar lentigines.
UI - 21385666
AU - Udart M; Utikal J; Krahn GM; Peter RU
TI - Chromosome 7 aneusomy. A marker for metastatic melanoma? Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene and chromosome 7 aneusomy in nevi, primary malignant melanomas and metastases.
SO - Neoplasia 2001 May-Jun;3(3):245-54
AD - Department of Dermatology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Receptor tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) play an important role in a variety of malignant neoplasias, making the search for aberrations in the relevant chromosomes an important issue. Differential expression of the EGFR gene was investigated by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on tissue samples of normal skin, nevi, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases. The EGFR gene is located on chromosome 7p12.3-p12.1. To determine the number of chromosomes 7 in cell nuclei of the mentioned tissue samples we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on touch preparations, using a DNA probe that hybridizes specifically to the centromeric region of chromosome 7. Additionally, chromosome 7 number in interphase nuclei was determined in short-term primary cell cultures of nevi, primary melanomas, and metastases. The highest EGFR gene expression frequency was found in melanoma metastases. By FISH we detected the highest fraction of cell nuclei with more than two chromosomes 7 in the group of metastases. Our results suggest that overexpression of the EGFR gene might play an important role in metastasis of malignant melanoma. This is well reflected by polysomy 7, possibly accounting for an increased EGFR gene copy number.
UI - 21417734
AU - Coulie PG; Karanikas V; Colau D; Lurquin C; Landry C; Marchand M; Dorval
TI - T; Brichard V; Boon T A monoclonal cytolytic T-lymphocyte response observed in a melanoma patient vaccinated with a tumor-specific antigenic peptide encoded by gene MAGE-3.
SO - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001 Aug 28;98(18):10290-5
AD - Cellular Genetics Unit, Institute of Cellular Pathology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Universite de Louvain, Brussels B1200, Belgium. email@example.com
Vaccination of melanoma patients with tumor-specific antigens recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) produces significant tumor regressions in a minority of patients. These regressions appear to occur in the absence of massive CTL responses. To detect low-level responses, we resorted to antigenic stimulation of blood lymphocyte cultures in limiting dilution conditions, followed by tetramer analysis, cloning of the tetramer-positive cells, and T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence analysis of the CTL clones that showed strict specificity for the tumor antigen. A monoclonal CTL response against a MAGE-3 antigen was observed in a melanoma patient, who showed partial rejection of a large metastasis after treatment with a vaccine containing only the tumor-specific antigenic peptide. Tetramer analysis after in vitro restimulation indicated that about 1/40,000 postimmunization CD8(+) blood lymphocytes were directed against the antigen. The same TCR was present in all of the positive microcultures. TCR evaluation carried out directly on blood lymphocytes by PCR amplification led to a similar frequency estimate after immunization, whereas the TCR was not found among 2.5 x 10(6) CD8(+) lymphocytes collected before immunization. Our results prove unambiguously that vaccines containing only a tumor-specific antigenic peptide can elicit a CTL response. Even though they provide no information about the effector mechanisms responsible for the observed reduction in tumor mass in this patient, they would suggest that low-level CTL responses can initiate tumor rejection.
UI - 21369696
AU - Sargent LM; Nelson MA; Lowry DT; Senft JR; Jefferson AM; Ariza ME;
TI - Reynolds SH Detection of three novel translocations and specific common chromosomal break sites in malignant melanoma by spectral karyotyping.
SO - Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2001 Sep;32(1):18-25
AD - Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Chromosomal aberrations in malignant melanoma cells have been reported using standard chromosome banding analysis and comparative genomic hybridization. To identify marker chromosomes and translocations that are difficult to characterize by standard banding analysis, 15 early passage malignant melanoma cell lines were examined using spectral karyotyping. All 15 tumor cell lines had lost all or part of 1p and 10q. Losses of material on chromosome arms 4p (12/15), 6q (12/15), 9p (15/15), 12p (13/15), 12q (13/15), 13q (11/15), and 19q (14/15) were the next most frequent events. Gain of chromosome arms 1q (11/15), 6p (13/15), and 20q11 (14/15) was also observed. Interestingly, we identified translocations der(12)t(12;20)(q15;q11), der(19)t(10;19)(q23;q13), and der(12)t(12;19)(q13;q13) in 4/15 tumors. Three recurring translocations involving four of the most frequent break points were detected. The identification of recurring translocations and unique chromosome break points in melanoma will aid in the identification of the genes that are important in the neoplastic process. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 21369704
AU - Pollock PM; Stark MS; Palmer JM; Walters MK; Aitken JF; Martin NG;
TI - Hayward NK Mutation analysis of the CDKN2A promoter in Australian melanoma families.
SO - Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2001 Sep;32(1):89-94
AD - Joint Experimental Oncology Program of the Queensland Institute of Medical Research, University of Queensland, and the Queensland Cancer Fund, P.O. Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.
Approximately 50% of all melanoma families worldwide show linkage to 9p21-22, but only about half of these have been shown to contain germ line CDKN2A mutations. It has been hypothesized that a proportion of these families carry mutations in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A. Several Canadian families have been reported to carry a mutation in the 5' UTR, at position -34 relative to the start site, which gives rise to a novel AUG translation initiation codon that markedly decreases translation from the wild-type AUG (Liu et al., 1999). Haplotype sharing in these Canadian families suggested that this mutation is of British origin. We sequenced 1,327 base pairs (bp) of CDKN2A, making up 1,116 bp of the 5' UTR and promoter, all of exon 1, and 61 bp of intron 1, in at least one melanoma case from 110 Australian families with three or more affected members known not to carry mutations within the p16 coding region. In addition, 431 bp upstream of the start codon was sequenced in an additional 253 affected probands from two-case melanoma families for which the CDKN2A mutation status was unknown. Several known polymorphisms at positions -33, -191, -493, and -735 were detected, in addition to four novel variants at positions 120, -252, -347, and -981 relative to the start codon. One of the probands from a two-case family was found to have the previously reported Q50R mutation. No family member was found to carry the mutation at position -34 or any other disease-associated mutation. For further investigation of noncoding CDKN2A mutations that may affect transcription, allele-specific expression analysis was carried out in 31 of the families with at least three affected members who showed either complete or "indeterminate" 9p haplotype sharing without CDKN2A exonic mutations. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and automated sequencing showed expression of both CDKN2A alleles in all family members tested. The lack of CDKN2A promoter mutations and the absence of transcriptional silencing in the germ line of this cohort of families suggest that mutations in the promoter and 5' UTR play a very limited role in melanoma predisposition. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 21455680
AU - Rizos H; Puig S; Badenas C; Malvehy J; Darmanian AP; Jimenez L; Mila M;
TI - Kefford RF A melanoma-associated germline mutation in exon 1beta inactivates p14ARF.
SO - Oncogene 2001 Sep 6;20(39):5543-7
AD - Westmead Institute for Cancer Research, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Westmead NSW 2145, Australia. email@example.com
The INK4a/ARF locus encodes the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p16(INK4a) and the p53 activator, p14ARF. These two proteins have an independent first exon (exon 1alpha and exon 1beta, respectively) but share exons 2 and 3 and are translated in different reading frames. Germline mutations in this locus are associated with melanoma susceptibility in 20-40% of multiple case melanoma families. Although most of these mutations specifically inactivate p16(INK4a), more than 40% of the INK4a/ARF alterations located in exon 2, affect both p16(INK4a) and p14ARF. We now report a 16 base pair exon 1beta germline insertion specifically altering p14ARF, but not p16(INK4a), in an individual with multiple primary melanomas. This mutant p14ARF, 60ins16, was restricted to the cytoplasm, did not stabilize p53 and was unable to arrest the growth of a p53 expressing melanoma cell line. This is the first example of an exon 1beta mutation that inactivates p14ARF, and thus implicates a role for this tumour suppressor in melanoma predisposition.
UI - 21448758
AU - Sarangarajan R; Budev A; Zhao Y; Gahl WA; Boissy RE
TI - Abnormal translocation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 in cutaneous melanocytes of Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome and in melanoma cells transfected with anti-sense HPS1 cDNA.
SO - J Invest Dermatol 2001 Sep;117(3):641-6
AD - Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding disorder, and, in some patients, ceroid storage and progressive lung disease. Although Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome exhibits locus heterogeneity, most patients have mutations in the HPS1 gene. Melanocytes in the basal epithelial layer of skin from patients with different mutations in the HPS1 gene exhibited occasional large complexes containing dihydroxyphenylalanine-positive cisterna and 50 nm vesicles. To characterize the role of the HPS1 protein in cells, human HPS1 cDNA was transfected into pigmented SK-MEL-188 melanoma cells (M-188) in either the sense (S-188) or the antisense (A-188) orientation. Expression of the 79 kDa HPS1 protein (in M-188 and S-188 cells) or lack of expression (in A-188 cells) was confirmed by Western blotting using two HPS1-protein-specific polyclonal antibodies. Significant reduction in expression of HPS1 protein in A-188 cells resulted in a significant decrease in tyrosinase activity and melanin content compared with M-188 and S-188 cells using an intact cell assay for tyrosinase. In contrast, tyrosinase activities in cell lysates of M-188, S-188, and A-188 cells were not significantly different. Knockout of HPS1 protein expression in A-188 cells caused both tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 to be localized to large granular complexes in the cell cytosol and dendrites. Electron microscope analysis of the A-188 cells revealed that absence of HPS1 protein resulted in the deposition of dihydroxyphenylalanine reaction products (i.e., tyrosinase) confined to large membrane-bound structures with limiting membranes. We conclude that lack of HPS1 protein expression results in mistranslocation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 to large granular complexes rather than melanosomes, compromising melanin synthesis.
UI - 21448766
AU - Dai Y; Kato M; Takeda K; Kawamoto Y; Akhand AA; Hossain K; Suzuki H;
TI - Nakashima I T-cell-immunity-based inhibitory effects of orally administered herbal medicine juzen-taiho-to on the growth of primarily developed melanocytic tumors in RET-transgenic mice.
SO - J Invest Dermatol 2001 Sep;117(3):694-701
AD - Department of Immunology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.
We examined the effect of oral administration of juzen-taiho-to, one of the most popular herbal medicines in Japan, on primary melanocytic tumor growth in RET-transgenic mice. There was virtually no difference between the lengths of tumor-free stages in the juzen-taiho-to-treated mice and the untreated littermate control mice. The rate of tumor growth in the juzen-taiho-to-treated mice, however, was greatly suppressed during the entire period after the initial tumor development. Correspondingly, the life span of juzen-taiho-to-treated transgenic mice was longer (over 6 mo in mean value) than that of control mice. We partially elucidated the mechanism of the antitumor effect of juzen-taiho-to. The addition of juzen-taiho-to at any of a wide range (50-1600 microg per ml) of concentrations to in vitro cultures of Mel-Ret cells, a malignant melanoma cell line derived from a RET-transgenic mouse, caused neither cell death nor cell cycle arrest directly. The addition of 50-400 microg per ml of juzen-taiho-to to cultures of murine spleen cells, however, promoted their DNA synthesis. More importantly, peritoneal exudate cells from the juzen-taiho-to-treated transgenic mice, in which the ratio and number of T cells were increased, displayed an antitumor immunity against Mel-Ret cells in vitro. Interestingly, the peritoneal-exudate-cell-associated antitumor immunity was further augmented by the addition of 200-400 microg per ml of juzen-taiho-to in vitro. This immunity, which was primarily conveyed by Thy-1+ T cells, was antigen (RET/melanoma) specific and cytotoxic. Amongst various chemical ingredients of juzen-taiho-to examined in this study, glycirrhizin displayed an action, partially replacing that of juzen-taiho-to, in promoting anti-Mel-Ret immunity when supplementarily added in vitro. These results suggest that juzen-taiho-to suppresses once-developed primary melanocytic tumors through potentiation of T-cell-mediated antitumor cytotoxic immunity in vivo.
UI - 21429434
AU - Krimpenfort P; Quon KC; Mooi WJ; Loonstra A; Berns A
TI - Loss of p16Ink4a confers susceptibility to metastatic melanoma in mice.
SO - Nature 2001 Sep 6;413(6851):83-6
AD - Division of Molecular Genetics and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
CDKN2A (INK4a/ARF) is frequently disrupted in various types of human cancer, and germline mutations of this locus can confer susceptibility to melanoma and other tumours. However, because CDKN2A encodes two distinct cell cycle inhibitory proteins, p16INK4a and p14ARF (p19Arf in mice), the mechanism of tumour suppression by CDKN2A has remained controversial. Genetic disruption of Cdkn2a(p19Arf) (hereafter Arf) alone predisposes mice to tumorigenesis, demonstrating that Arf is a tumour-suppressor gene in mice. We mutated mice specifically in Cdkn2a(p16Ink4a) (hereafter Ink4a). Here we demonstrate that these mice, designated Ink4a*/*, do not show a significant predisposition to spontaneous tumour formation within 17 months. Embryo fibroblasts derived from them proliferate normally, are mortal, and are not mice implies that the very strong phenotypes of the original Ink4a/ArfDelta2,3 mice were primarily or solely due to loss of Arf. However, Ink4a*/Delta2,3 mice that are deficient for Ink4a and heterozygous for Arf spontaneously develop a wide spectrum of tumours, including melanoma. Treatment of these mice with the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) results in an increased incidence of melanoma, with frequent metastases. Our results show that, in the mouse, Ink4a is a tumour-suppressor gene that, when lost, can recapitulate the tumour predisposition seen in humans.
UI - 99139514
AU - Nelson MA; Ariza ME; Yang JM; Thompson FH; Taetle R; Trent JM; Wymer J;
TI - Massey-Brown K; Broome-Powell M; Easton J; Lahti JM; Kidd VJ Abnormalities in the p34cdc2-related PITSLRE protein kinase gene complex (CDC2L) on chromosome band 1p36 in melanoma.
SO - Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1999 Jan 15;108(2):91-9
AD - Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson 85724, USA.
The two genes encoding the PITSLRE protein kinase isoforms, CDC2L1 and CDC2L2, are localized to human chromosome band 1p36. The PITSLRE protein kinases are a part of the p34cdc2 supergene family. Several protein products of the CDC2L locus may be effector(s) in apoptotic signaling. The larger PITSLRE p110 isoforms appear to regulate some aspect of RNA splicing/transcription during the cell cycle. One or more of these genes may function as tumor suppressor genes in melanoma. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, one allele of the CDC2L gene complex on chromosome 1 was either deleted or translocated in 8 of 14 different melanoma cell lines. We also observed mutations in the 5' promoter region of the CDC2L1 gene in four different cell lines relative to normal melanocytes using PCR-SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing. Western blot analysis revealed decreased level of PITSLRE protein expression in several cell lines, as well as in four surgical malignant melanoma specimens relative to normal melanocytes. Thus, the decreased PITSLRE protein expression appears to result from deletion of the CDC2L alleles and possibly by mutations within the 5' promoter region. We propose that aberrations in the CDC2L genes may contribute to the pathogenesis or progression of melanoma.
UI - 21370568
AU - Poetsch M; Dittberner T; Woenckhaus C
TI - Does the PITSLRE gene complex contribute to the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma of the skin? A study of patient-derived tumor samples?
SO - Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2001 Jul 15;128(2):181-2
UI - 21369396
AU - Goidin D; Mamessier A; Staquet MJ; Schmitt D; Berthier-Vergnes O
TI - Ribosomal 18S RNA prevails over glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin genes as internal standard for quantitative comparison of mRNA levels in invasive and noninvasive human melanoma cell subpopulations.
SO - Anal Biochem 2001 Aug 1;295(1):17-21
AD - INSERM U 346, affiliee CNRS, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, F-69437, France.
The comparison of the gene expression profiles between two subpopulations of melanoma cells (1C8 and T1C3) derived from the tumor of one patient by cDNA array revealed differences in GAPDH and beta-actin gene levels. These two housekeeping genes were up-regulated in invasive T1C3 melanoma cells compared to noninvasive 1C8 cells. Since cDNA array results were not confirmed by conventional RT-PCR throughout the exponential phase of amplification, we performed duplex relative RT-PCR using ribosomal 18S RNA as internal standard including competimer technology. Statistical analyses provided significant evidence that invasive T1C3 melanoma cells exhibited a twofold higher mRNA level of both GAPDH and beta-actin than noninvasive 1C8 cells. This study demonstrates that the duplex relative RT-PCR procedure including ribosomal 18S RNA as internal standard and competimer technology is precise for RNA quantification and is tailored for cDNA array validation. Our data provide molecular evidence that cellular subpopulations of the same pathological origin are highly heterogeneous and extend the concept that the selection of an appropriate internal control for comparative mRNA analysis should be adapted to each model of human cancers. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
UI - 21372381
AU - Kageshita T; Mizuno M; Ono T; Matsumoto K; Saida T; Yoshida J
TI - Growth inhibition of human malignant melanoma transfected with the human interferon-beta gene by means of cationic liposomes.
SO - Melanoma Res 2001 Aug;11(4):337-42
AD - Department of Dermatology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Japan.
Among the various types of human interferons, human interferon-beta (HuIFNbeta) has the strongest anti-proliferative activity against human melanoma cell lines. Therefore, we investigated the growth inhibitory effect of a cationic liposome containing the HuIFNbeta gene on human melanoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. After transfection with liposomes containing the HuIFN-beta gene, human melanoma cell lines produced HuIFNbeta in the culture medium at levels ranging from 67 to 3.8 IU/ml on day 6, and growth of the cells was inhibited by 71-92%. Moreover, six injections of liposomes containing the HuIFNbeta gene completely eradicated human melanoma nodules transplanted onto the backs of nude mice 40 days after the first injection. Histological analysis of the injected nodules revealed that the HuIFNbeta gene transfection induced apoptosis of the human melanoma cells. These data suggest that transfection of the HuIFNbeta gene using cationic liposomes is a promising candidate for gene therapy of human melanoma.
UI - 21372382
AU - Walker G; Hayward N
TI - No evidence of a role for activating CDK2 mutations in melanoma.
SO - Melanoma Res 2001 Aug;11(4):343-8
AD - Queensland Cancer Fund Research Unit, Joint Experimental Oncology Program, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Post Office Royal Brisbane Hospital, QLD 4029, Australia. graemeW@qimr.edu.au
Inactivation of p16INK4a and/or activation of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) are strongly associated with both susceptibility and progression in melanoma. Activating CDK4 mutations prevent the binding and inhibition of CDK4 by p16INK4a. A second, more indirect role for CDK4 is in late G1, where it may sequester the inhibitors p27KIP1 or p21CIP1 away from CDK2, and in doing so upregulate the CDK2 activity necessary for cells to proceed completely through G1 into S phase. As the pivotal residues around the most predominant R24C activating CDK4 mutation are invariant between CDK2 and CDK4, we speculated that the pivotal arginine (position 22 in CDK2), or a nearby residue, may be mutated in some melanomas, resulting in the diminution of its binding and inhibition by p27KIP1 or p21CIP1. However, except for a silent polymorphism, we detected no variants within this region of the CDK2 gene in 60 melanoma cell lines. Thus, if CDK2 activity is dysregulated in melanoma it is likely to occur by a means other than mutations causing loss of direct inhibition. We also examined the expression of the CDK2 gene in melanoma cell lines, to assess its possible co-regulation with the gene for the melanocyte-lineage antigen pmel17, which maps less than 1 kb away in head to head orientation with CDK2 and may be transcribed off the same bidirectional promoter. However, expression of the genes is not co-regulated.
UI - 21372383
AU - Bogdan I; Xin H; Burg G; Boni R
TI - Heterogeneity of allelic deletions within melanoma metastases.
SO - Melanoma Res 2001 Aug;11(4):349-54
AD - Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich, Gloriastreet 31, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
During the initiation and progression of malignant melanoma, a series of different genetic events accumulate on several different chromosomes. The biological heterogeneity of tumour cells presents a major problem, preventing effective treatment of melanoma. To examine the degree of genetic heterogeneity, we searched for allelic losses (loss of heterozygosity; LOH) on chromosomes 9p, 9q, 1p and 17p, examining different areas within human melanoma metastases. All of the examined metastases were informative within at least one dissected area for at least one marker. Out of 29 areas in 11 melanoma metastases, 58% showed LOH with at least one marker. On chromosome 9p21-22, eight out of 26 informative loci (31%) showed LOH at D9S171 (three not informative), two out of 18 (11%) at IFNA (11 not informative) and seven out of 24 (29%) at D9S169 (five not informative). LOH on chromosome 9q22.3 was examined by the microsatellite marker D9S12; three out of 24 areas (12.5%) showed LOH, and five were not informative. Deletions on chromosome 1p were assessed using D1S450. Four out of 25 (16%) showed LOH; four were not informative. Deletions on chromosome 17p13 were examined with TP53; two out of 21 cases (9%) showed LOH, and eight were not informative. Our data demonstrate an impressive heterogeneity of allelic losses in the investigated chromosomal areas within the same metastatic lesion. This suggests that there is not one specific genetic alteration that accounts for melanoma progression to metastases. Rather there seem to be multiple genetic alterations accumulating even on the same chromosome, and progression from melanoma to metastases is paralleled by the accumulation of clones harbouring multiple genetic abnormalities.
UI - 21372384
AU - Gilhooly EM; Morse-Gaudio M; Bianchi L; Reinhart L; Rose DP; Connolly
TI - JM; Reed JA; Albino AP Loss of expression of protein kinase C beta is a common phenomenon in human malignant melanoma: a result of transformation or differentiation?
SO - Melanoma Res 2001 Aug;11(4):355-69
AD - American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.
As with most cancers, the aetiology of human cutaneous melanoma is likely to be multifactorial and to include the accumulation of irreversible alterations in an unknown number of genes. Elucidating this molecular progression necessitates both the identification of genetic perturbations at each clinically relevant stage, and the assessment of their impact on the normal melanocyte. The observation that the epidermal melanocyte, in contrast to metastatic melanoma cells, requires activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway to facilitate growth in vitro indicates that one or more isoforms (or substrates) of this large and complex family of proteins are among those that undergo alteration during the development of malignant melanoma. Consequently, a number of studies have investigated the expression of various PKC family members in both melanocyte and melanoma cell lines, without a consensus of opinion as to which isoforms are of biological significance in melanoma development and progression. The present study involved a comprehensive evaluation of the PKC profile in normal melanocytes and in 16 metastatic melanoma cell lines. The results show that the major difference in isoform expression between epidermal melanocytes and melanoma cells is the loss of PKCbeta protein expression in 90% of melanoma cell lines. Examination of PKCbeta in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions revealed that this protein is either downregulated or absent in both naevi and metastatic melanomas. We conjecture that, although the loss of PKCbeta expression is a common phenomenon in malignant melanocytes, it may be related more to a normal process of melanocytic differentiation than to malignant transformation.
UI - 21372385
AU - Max N; Willhauck M; Wolf K; Thilo F; Reinhold U; Pawlita M; Thiel E;
TI - Keilholz U Reliability of PCR-based detection of occult tumour cells: lessons from real-time RT-PCR.
SO - Melanoma Res 2001 Aug;11(4):371-8
AD - Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Benjamin Franklin, Free University Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin, Germany. email@example.com
For the molecular detection of rare tumour cells in clinical samples, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) offers two important advantages over conventional RT-PCR assays: the results are quantitative and, perhaps more importantly, it facilitates exact sensitivity controls on a per sample basis as well as exact comparison of different assay protocols. We report here on quantitative results obtained with different protocols for RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis for amplification of beta2-microglobulin transcripts using the light cycler system. Furthermore, housekeeping gene-specific PCRs were compared with PCRs specific for an artificial transcript (internal standard) detected simultaneously at a level comparable to the wild-type sequence. Artificial tyrosinase transcripts derived from a vector construct stably transfected into a human lymphoma cell line were used as a model to test the usefulness of artificial internal standards as an alternative to housekeeping genes. The highest RNA yields were obtained using a combination of phenol-chloroform extraction and the High Pure RNA Isolation Kit. Analysing beta2-microglobulin transcript-specific RT-PCRs, the highest sensitivity was obtained for cDNAs generated with Omniscript reverse transcriptase and oligo-p(dT)15 primer. Regarding patient blood samples, RT-PCRs specific for beta2-microglobulin, porphobilinogen deaminase and artificial tyrosinase transcripts provided quantitative data for all, for 18 out of 21, and for 10 out of 21 samples, respectively. Quantification of beta2-microglobulin transcripts by the light cycler system defined the protocol revealing the highest cDNA quality. Comparisons of quantitative data from RT-PCRs specific for beta2-microglobulin, porphobilinogen deaminase and artificial tyrosinase transcripts enabled us to determine a close range for crossing points within which sufficient cDNA quality can be guaranteed, even for the detection of rare transcripts. PCRs specific for the artificial internal standard are ideally suited for cDNA quality assessment on a per sample basis.
UI - 21372386
AU - Lucas T; Pratscher B; Krishnan S; Fink D; Gunsberg P; Wolschek M;
TI - Wacheck V; Muster T; Romirer I; Wolff K; Pehamberger H; Eichler HG; Rangnekar VM; Jansen B Differential expression levels of Par-4 in melanoma.
SO - Melanoma Res 2001 Aug;11(4):379-83
AD - Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Section of Experimental Oncology/Molecular Pharmacology, University of Vienna, Wahringer Gurtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
The pro-apoptotic prostate apoptosis response-4 gene product Par-4 sensitizes prostate cells to the induction of programmed cell death. In this study we examined Par-4 expression in human melanoma cell lines and melanoma metastases. The heterogeneous expression detected prompted us to investigate the biological relevance of Par-4 in a human melanoma xenotransplantation model. Overexpression of Par-4 by transfection decreased tumour development in xenotransplanted A375-C6 melanoma cells in SCID mice and correlated to an increase in tumour cell apoptosis. These data suggest that high expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 could qualify as a prognostic marker in human melanoma.
UI - 21372391
AU - Bosserhoff AK; Echtenacher B; Hein R; Buettner R
TI - Functional role of melanoma inhibitory activity in regulating invasion and metastasis of malignant melanoma cells in vivo.
SO - Melanoma Res 2001 Aug;11(4):417-21
AD - Institute of Pathology, RWTH Aachen, D-52074 Aachen, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
MIA (melanoma inhibitory activity) has been previously isolated from the tissue culture supernatant of melanoma cell lines as an autoregulatory activity, inhibiting thymidine incorporation. However, subsequent analyses of melanocytic tumours in vivo have correlated enhanced MIA expression with progression of melanocytic tumours, conflicting with the idea that MIA acts as a tumour suppressor. To investigate the role of MIA in vivo, we have therefore generated a panel of stably transfected B16 cell clones secreting different amounts of MIA. The capacity of these cell clones to form lung metastases in syngeneic C57Bl6 mice was strictly correlated to the level of MIA secretion, but the clones did not differ with respect to their proliferation in vitro. In summary, we suggest that MIA plays a causal role in promoting the metastasis of malignant melanomas, involving inhibition of tumour cell attachment to extracellular matrix molecules within their local milieu.
UI - 21426325
AU - Box NF; Duffy DL; Chen W; Stark M; Martin NG; Sturm RA; Hayward NK
TI - MC1R genotype modifies risk of melanoma in families segregating CDKN2A mutations.
SO - Am J Hum Genet 2001 Oct;69(4):765-73
AD - Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia.
Mutations in the exons of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene CDKN2A are melanoma-predisposition alleles which have high penetrance, although they have low population frequencies. In contrast, variants of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, MC1R, confer much lower melanoma risk but are common in European populations. Fifteen Australian CDKN2A mutation-carrying melanoma pedigrees were assessed for MC1R genotype, to test for possible modifier effects on melanoma risk. A CDKN2A mutation in the presence of a homozygous consensus MC1R genotype had a raw penetrance of 50%, with a mean age at onset of 58.1 years. When an MC1R variant allele was also present, the raw penetrance of the CDKN2A mutation increased to 84%, with a mean age at onset of 37.8 years (P=.01). The presence of a CDKN2A mutation gave a hazard ratio of 13.35, and the hazard ratio of 3.72 for MC1R variant alleles was also significant. The impact of MC1R variants on risk of melanoma was mediated largely through the action of three common alleles, Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, and Asp294His, that have previously been associated with red hair, fair skin, and skin sensitivity to ultraviolet light.
UI - 21426326
AU - van der Velden PA; Sandkuijl LA; Bergman W; Pavel S; van Mourik L;
TI - Frants RR; Gruis NA Melanocortin-1 receptor variant R151C modifies melanoma risk in Dutch families with melanoma.
SO - Am J Hum Genet 2001 Oct;69(4):774-9
AD - Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands.
Germline mutations of the cell-cycle regulator p16 (also called "CDKN2A") in kindreds with melanoma implicate this gene in susceptibility to malignant melanoma. Most families with familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma (FAMMM) who are registered at the Leiden dermatology clinic share the same p16-inactivating deletion (p16-Leiden). Incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression suggest risk modification by other genetic and/or environmental factors. Variants of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene have been shown to be associated with red hair, fair skin, and melanoma in humans. Carriers of the p16-Leiden deletion in Dutch families with FAMMM show an increased risk of melanoma when they also carry MC1R variant alleles. The R151C variant is overrepresented in patients with melanoma who are from families with the p16-Leiden mutation. Although some of the effect of the R151C variant on melanoma risk may be attributable to its effect on skin type, our analyses indicate that the R151C variant contributes an increased melanoma risk even after statistical correction for its effect on skin type. These findings suggest that the R151C variant may be involved in melanoma tumorigenesis in a dual manner, both as a determinant of fair skin and as a component in an independent additional pathway.
UI - 21471441
AU - Richards B; Karpilow J; Dunn C; Zharkikh L; Maxfield A; Kamb A; Teng DH
TI - Creation of a stable human reporter cell line suitable for FACS-based, transdominant genetic selection.
SO - Somat Cell Mol Genet 1999 Jul;25(4):191-205
AD - Arcaris, Inc, 615 Arapeen Drive, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA.
Quality bioassays are central to all approaches directed at understanding or perturbing the function of proteins. One type of cell-based bioassay involves an engineered reporter whose transcriptional activity serves as a readout for upstream signals of a biochemical pathway(s) that feeds into the reporter. We describe a general strategy for creating a mammalian reporter line with attributes suitable for a high complexity, en masse transdominant genetic screen. The basic criteria required of the mammalian cells engineered with the reporter include ease of maintenance, ease of sorting by FACS, ability to be transduced by retroviruses, and high expression of transduced peptides or cDNAs. For maximal enrichment during selection, the reporter line should have a relatively homogeneous response and a high signal-to-background ratio. We use a melanoma cell line transduced with a retinoic-acid-responsive promoter coupled to a GFP reporter as a case study to demonstrate the strategy. We characterize an optimized retinoic-acid-responsive reporter clone to determine the kinetics of reporter induction and decay in the presence and absence of retinoids. Dose-response studies reveal that the reporter responds to all-trans retinoic acid with an EC50 of approximately 1 nM. The strategy described is general and may be applied to create other reporter lines that respond to a specific stimulus.
UI - 21464710
AU - Scholes AG; Liloglou T; Maloney P; Hagan S; Nunn J; Hiscott P; Damato
TI - BE; Grierson I; Field JK Loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 3, 9, 13, and 17, including the retinoblastoma locus, in uveal melanoma.
SO - Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001 Oct;42(11):2472-7
AD - Unit of Ophthalmology, Department of Medicine, The University of Liverpool, United Kingdom. email@example.com
PURPOSE: To identify tumor-suppressor loci that may contribute to the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma. METHODS: Multiplex fluorescence microsatellite assays were performed on 27 uveal melanomas using markers at 3p25-p26, 3p14.2, 9p21-p23, 13q14, 13q12.3-q13, and 17p13, close to or within the von Hippel Lindau (VHL), fragile histidine triad (FHIT), p16/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 (CDKN2A), retinoblastoma (RB1), breast cancer 2 (BRCA2), and p53 tumor suppressor loci, respectively. Further markers on chromosomes 3 and 9 were analyzed individually. RESULTS: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was identified in 63% of tumors, most frequently on chromosome 3 (52%), in association with epithelioid cells (P = 0.0002) and microvascular loops (P = 0.0008). In the majority of cases, LOH on chromosome 3 was detected at all informative markers. The second most common alteration was LOH at an RB1 intragenic marker (21% tumors), with retention of a more centromeric 13q marker (near BRCA2). The pattern of LOH on chromosome 9p was consistent with the involvement of a region telomeric to CDKN2A. LOH at TP53 was infrequent. CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of cases, chromosome 3 LOH involves an entire chromosome homologue, which hampers identification of the relevant suppressor lo