National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: April 1, 2002
UI - 11884898
AU - Shields JA; Shields CL; Naseripor M; Eagle RC; Miller J
TI - Choroidal melanoma in a black patient with oculodermal melanocytosis.
SO - Retina 2002 Feb;22(1):126-8
AD - Oncology Service and Department of Pathology, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.
UI - 11879148
AU - Wilson DJ; Klein ML
TI - Choroidal melanoma treated with cryotherapy.
SO - Arch Ophthalmol 2002 Mar;120(3):393-5
AD - Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, 3375 SW Terwilliger Blvd, Portland, OR 97201-4197, USA. email@example.com
UI - 11879152
AU - Wilson DJ; Klein ML
TI - Cryotherapy as a primary treatment for choroidal melanoma.
SO - Arch Ophthalmol 2002 Mar;120(3):400-3
AD - Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3375 SW Terwilliger Blvd, Portland, OR 97201, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
UI - 11905603
AU - Ruiter D; Bogenrieder T; Elder D; Herlyn M
TI - Melanoma-stroma interactions: structural and functional aspects.
SO - Lancet Oncol 2002 Jan;3(1):35-43
AD - The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA. email@example.com
Cutaneous melanomas are notorious for their tendency to metastasise. Because the tumour microenvironment plays an important part in tumour development and progression, we review the structural and functional aspects of interactions between melanoma and the stroma. We emphasise fibrovascular patterns (both in uveal and cutaneous melanoma), cellular and extracellular composition of the stroma, and the molecules involved. Also, we discuss functional interactions, focusing on melanoma-fibroblast cross-talk by soluble factors and by direct cell-cell contact. On the basis of recent findings we propose that involvement of fibroblasts in melanoma-stromagenesis occurs through different stages: recruitment, activation, and conversion to myofibroblasts, or differentiation to fibrocytes. We reason that this involvement is topographically linked to different areas in and around the tumour, and hypothesise that stromal activation, as seen in tumor ulceration or immunological regression in melanoma, stimulates tumour progression.
UI - 11853726
AU - Romaniuk W; Koziol H; Muskalski K; Dorecka M; Tarnawska D; Sabat D
TI - A unique case of primary corneal melanoma.
SO - Jpn J Ophthalmol 2002 Jan-Feb;46(1):114-6
AD - Department of Ophthalmology, Silesian School of Medicine, St. Barbara Specialist Hospital, Sosnowiec, Poland.
PURPOSE: To report a unique case of primary corneal melanoma. METHODS: A 59-year-old white woman underwent keratectomy to remove a pigmented rapidly enlarging growth on the corner of her left eye. The specimen was submitted for histopathologic examination. RESULTS: Ophthalmic examination disclosed no association with limbal or conjunctival melanocytic abnormalities. Histopathologic studies demonstrated nodular malignant melanoma. CONCLUSION: Possible development of primary corneal melanoma should be considered in diagnosing all cases with a past history of corneal melanin pigmentation.
UI - 11934320
AU - Iwamoto S; Burrows RC; Kalina RE; George D; Boehm M; Bothwell MA;
TI - Schmidt R Immunophenotypic differences between uveal and cutaneous melanomas.
SO - Arch Ophthalmol 2002 Apr;120(4):466-70
AD - Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of Washington Medical Center, Box 356524, Seattle, WA 98195-6524, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To determine the immunophenotypic differences between uveal and cutaneous melanomas, employing standard melanoma markers as well as p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). DESIGN: Fifteen uveal melanomas (5 spindle, 5 epithelioid, and 5 mixed uveal subtypes) were immunolabeled with a panel of antibodies that included S100, tyrosinase, melan-A, HMB-45 and HMB-50 combination, MITF, and p75NTR. The results were tabulated on the basis of intensity and pervasiveness of the labeling and compared with a prior study on cutaneous spindle and epithelioid melanomas. RESULTS: In contrast to its strong labeling of cutaneous melanomas, S100 immunolabeling of uveal melanomas was weak and variable. p75NTR, known to differentiate spindle from epithelioid melanomas of the skin, did not immunolabel uveal melanomas. HMB-45, HMB-50, tyrosinase, melan-A, and MITF immunolabeled all uveal melanomas strongly, irrespective of the histologic subtype, but not cutaneous melanomas. Microphthalmia transcription factor was especially clear in its labeling of uveal melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Although cutaneous and uveal melanomas share many molecular markers in common, there are differences between the 2 types of melanoma. First, the level of expression of S100 differs between cutaneous and uveal melanomas. Second, while cutaneous melanomas can be further subdivided into spindle and epithelioid types based on their immunophenotype, the uveal melanomas cannot.
UI - 11309305
AU - Tschentscher F; Prescher G; Horsman DE; White VA; Rieder H; Anastassiou
TI - G; Schilling H; Bornfeld N; Bartz-Schmidt KU; Horsthemke B; Lohmann DR; Zeschnigk M Partial deletions of the long and short arm of chromosome 3 point to two tumor suppressor genes in uveal melanoma.
SO - Cancer Res 2001 Apr 15;61(8):3439-42
AD - Institut fur Humangenetik, Universitatsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, D-45122 Essen, Germany.
Uveal melanoma is the most common form of primary eye cancer. Monosomy 3, which is an unusual finding in tumors but is present in approximately 50% of uveal melanomas, is significantly correlated with metastatic disease. To obtain positional information on putative tumor suppressor genes on this chromosome, we have investigated tumors from 333 patients by comparative genomic hybridization, microsatellite analysis, or conventional karyotype analysis. A partial deletion of the long arm was found in eight tumors, and the smallest region of deletion overlap (SRO) spans 3q24-q26. We found six tumors with a partial deletion of the short arm and were able to define a second SRO of about 2.5 Mb in 3p25. This SRO does not overlap with the VHL gene. Our finding suggests a role for two tumor suppressor genes in metastasizing uveal melanoma and may explain the loss of an entire chromosome 3 in these tumors.
UI - 11931804
AU - Laquis SJ; Freeman JM; Fleming JC; Wilson MW; Haik BG
TI - A rapidly growing choroidal melanoma.
SO - Am J Ophthalmol 2002 Apr;133(4):580-1
AD - Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA.
PURPOSE: We describe a rapidly growing choroidal melanoma that failed to respond to consecutive globe-sparing treatments in an individual with ocular melanocytosis. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHODS: A 53-year-old man with right ocular melanocytosis, decreased vision in the right eye, and right eye pain was referred for suspected choroidal melanoma. The lesion, which measured 2.4 mm x 6.6 mm x 6.0 mm, was treated with transpupillary thermotherapy on two occasions and with iodine-125 (I-125) plaque brachytherapy, both of which failed. Enucleation allowed histologic analysis. RESULTS: At enucleation, the choroidal melanoma in the right eye measured 13.6 mm x 16.5 mm x 16.9 mm, which demonstrated the most rapid growth and doubling time reported in a tumor of this type thus far. Pathologic analysis classified the tumor as a mixed-cell type. CONCLUSION: This case reiterates the association between ocular melanocytosis and choroidal melanoma, provides additional evidence that rapid growth and doubling time may be associated with transpupillary thermotherapy and I-125 plaque failure, and highlights the need to follow those tumors closely.
UI - 11913882
AU - Lee V; Sandy C; Rose GE; Moseley IM; Cree I; Hungerford JL
TI - Primary orbital melanoma masquerading as vascular anomalies.
SO - Eye 2002 Jan;16(1):16-20
AD - Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.
PURPOSE: To review two cases of primary orbital melanoma presenting like orbital vascular anomalies. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical presentation, treatment, radiology and pathology for two patients under the care of the Orbital Clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital. RESULTS: Both lesions presented with the appearance and behaviour of vascular anomalies. In one case, a spindle cell melanoma appeared to be a low flow vascular anomaly with a loculated secondary haemorrhage and, in the other case, a melanoma of soft parts was considered to be an arteriovenous malformation and responded partially to embolisation. CONCLUSION: Primary malignant melanoma may present as a secondary vascular lesion of the orbit and this very rare tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any vascular anomaly.
UI - 11864894
AU - Eskelin S; Kivela T
TI - Mode of presentation and time to treatment of uveal melanoma in Finland.
SO - Br J Ophthalmol 2002 Mar;86(3):333-8
AD - Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. email@example.com
AIMS: To investigate the current referral pattern and delays in treatment of patients with primary uveal melanoma. METHODS: 184 consecutive Finnish patients with uveal melanoma diagnosed between July 86%). Their mean age was 60 years (range 14-87). The dates of visits to dispensing optician, physician, ophthalmologist and ocular oncologist, the presence of symptoms, and reason for consultation were determined by structured telephone interview. Time intervals to treatment planning and treatment were calculated. RESULTS: 139 patients (87%) had symptoms at presentation and 44 patients (28%) had been seen by an ophthalmologist less than 2 years previously. The median height of the tumour was 6 mm (range, 1.0-17.0) and its largest basal diameter 11 mm (range 2.5-22.0) at diagnosis. Melanoma developed from a previously detected presumed naevus in 13 patients (8%). When the first contact was a dispensing optician (15%) the median time to treatment planning was 22 days (range 1-1156). When a physician other than an ophthalmologist (19%) was contacted the delay was 68 days (range 0-1283) and when an ophthalmologist (65%) was seen it was 34 days (range 1-1426). These differences were not significant (p=0.32). The chance of being referred at first visit was 89%. Median time to treatment was not associated with symptoms (p=0.16) and tumour volume (p=0.29), but it was significantly different between patients who were and were not referred at first visit (140 days v 34 days; p<0.001) and between those treated by ruthenium and iodine brachytherapy (59 days v 33 days; p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of delays in management indicates that earlier treatment could be achieved if dilated fundus examinations were performed without exceptions, all suspicious naevi were referred for a second opinion, and if the patients with melanoma were referred to the ocular oncology service concurrently with staging examinations done at the regional hospital.
UI - 11864904
AU - Tsai T; O'Brien JM; Engstrom R; Straatsma BR
TI - Extrascleral extension of a choroidal melanoma after argon photocoagulation and transpupillary thermotherapy.
SO - Br J Ophthalmol 2002 Mar;86(3):358-9
UI - 11944865
AU - Mueller A J; Bartsch D U; Schaller U; Freeman W R; Kampik A
TI - Imaging the microcirculation of untreated and treated human choroidal melanomas.
SO - Int Ophthalmol 2001;23(4-6):385-93
AD - Augenklinik der Universitat, Munchen, Germany.
INTRODUCTION: Histologically demonstrable microcirculation patterns (microcirculation pattern) of human choroidal melanomas have prognostic significance for the patient. We report on our experience in imaging these microcirculation pattern in vivo using simultaneous confocal Fluorescein (FA)- and Indocyaninegreen (ICG) angiography before and after brachytherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The simultaneously procured confocal FA- and ICG angiograms of 50 patients with untreated choroidal melanomas were studied for the visibility of microcirculation pattern. Patients were also followed with simultaneous FA/ICG after brachytherapy. RESULTS: Confocal FA disclosed signs of tumor vascularization in 12 (24%) of the 50 examined patients but microcirculation pattern only in 3 patients (6%). In contrast, simultaneously obtained confocal ICG disclosed microcirculation pattern in 47 patients (94%). In 10 (77%) of the 13 patients the tumor microcirculation changed considerably after brachytherapy: Distortion, thickening, thinning, as well as complete obliteration of vessels could be observed. CONCLUSION: Histologically demonstrated microcirculation pattern can be imaged in vivo. This offers the possibility to assess the likely biologic behavior of the individual tumor without the need for obtaining a cytologic or histologic specimen via enucleation or fine-needle biopsy. Confocal ICG angiogiography images microcirculation pattern better than FA which can be explained by the different absorption-, fluorescence- and exudation-characteristics ICG. Follow-up with confocal ICG of choroidal melanomas after brachytherapy shows different features and allows for visualization of the microcirculation reaction to the treatment which might be a useful tool for studying the effects of future anti-angiogenesis based tumor therapies.
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