National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: May 1, 2002
UI - 11764653
AU - Wratten C; Kilmurray J; Wright S; O'Brien P; Back M; Hamilton C; Denham
TI - J A study of high frequency ultrasound to assess cutaneous oedema in conservatively managed breast.
SO - Front Radiat Ther Oncol 2002;37():121-7
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Newcastle, Australia. email@example.com
UI - 11313882
AU - Bowers G; Reardon D; Hewitt T; Dent P; Mikkelsen RB; Valerie K;
TI - Lammering G; Amir C; Schmidt-Ullrich RK The relative role of ErbB1-4 receptor tyrosine kinases in radiation signal transduction responses of human carcinoma cells.
SO - Oncogene 2001 Mar 15;20(11):1388-97
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, VA23298-0058, USA.
Activation of the epidermal growth receptor (ErbB1) occurs within minutes of a radiation exposure. Immediate downstream consequences of this activation are currently indistinguishable from those obtained with growth factors (GF), e.g. stimulation of the pro-proliferative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). To identify potential differences, the effects of GFs and radiation on other members of the ErbB family have been compared in mammary carcinoma cell lines differing in their ErbB expression profiles. Treatment of cells with EGF (ErbB1-specific) or heregulin (ErbB4-specific) resulted in a hierarchic transactivations of ErbB2 and ErbB3 dependent on GF binding specificity. In contrast, radiation indiscriminately activated all ErbB species with the activation profile reflecting that cell's ErbB expression profile. Downstream consequences of these ErbB interactions were examined with MAPK after specifically inhibiting ErbB1 (or 4) with tyrphostin AG1478 or ErbB2 with tyrphostin AG825. MAPK activation by GFs or radiation was completely inhibited by AG1478 indicating total dependance on ErbB1 (or 4) depending on which ErbB is expressed. Inhibiting ErbB2 caused an enhanced MAPK response simulating an amplified ErbB1 (or 4) response. Thus ErbB2 is a modulator of ErbB1 (or 4) function leading to different MAPK response profiles to GF or radiation exposure.
UI - 11955729
AU - Legal JD; De Crevoisier R; Lartigau E; Morsli K; Dossou J; Chavaudra N;
TI - Sanfilippo N; Bourhis J; Eschwege F; Parmentier C Chromosomal aberrations induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in lymphocytes from patients with breast carcinoma.
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 Apr 1;52(5):1186-95
AD - UPRES EA29-10, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, France.
PURPOSE: Stable chromosomal aberrations (SCAs) have been found in circulating lymphocytes from patients treated for breast carcinoma. Therefore, we tried to define their incidence in such patients, to determine an in vitro dose-effect relationship, and to correlate these data with clinical parameters. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This prospective study included 25 patients who, after surgery, underwent either radiotherapy (RT) alone (n = 15) or RT combined with chemotherapy (n = 10). SCAs were scored using the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique before RT and 4 and 12 months after RT. Dose-effect curves were established by in vitro irradiation of blood samples with 2 and 4 Gy, before and after treatment. RESULTS: In all patients, the rate of SCAs increased significantly after external irradiation. No significant decrease in SCAs was observed during the first year after RT. RT and chemotherapy had no effect on the lymphocyte in vitro dose-effect relationship. No relationship was found in the distribution of patients between the yield of SCAs scored after external irradiation and after in vitro irradiation. SCAs after RT or in vitro irradiation did not correlate with family history of breast carcinoma or acute toxicity of treatment. More significantly, the yield of SCA after external irradiation was strongly related to the irradiation of the internal mammary chain and the supraclavicular lymph node area, suggesting that the volume of irradiated blood vessels was an essential parameter in determining the rate of SCAs. CONCLUSION: A high and stable yield of SCAs persisted at least 1 year after external irradiation. The nature of the volume irradiated containing large blood vessels was the major determinant of the observed biologic dose.
UI - 11955730
AU - Wennberg B; Gagliardi G; Sundbom L; Svane G; Lind P
TI - Early response of lung in breast cancer irradiation: radiologic density changes measured by CT and symptomatic radiation pneumonitis.
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 Apr 1;52(5):1196-206
AD - Department of Medical Physics, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: To quantify radiologic changes in the lung with CT after radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer (BC) and to study their association with treatment techniques and symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP). METHODS AND MATERIALS: CT scans of the lungs were performed before and 4 months after RT in 121 BC patients treated with four different RT techniques. The changes in mean density (MDCs) were analyzed at two lung levels (i.e., the central and apical CT slice). The central CT slice was also analyzed with respect to the MDCs in the anterior third and anterior half of the ipsilateral lung area. In mastectomized patients who received chest wall RT with an en-face electron beam, the maximal depths for a range of isodose curves were measured. The occurrence of mild/moderate symptomatic RP was assessed prospectively 1, 4, and 7 months after RT. Data on covariates with potential confounding effect on RT-induced lung toxicity were also collected prospectively. RESULTS: In the entire study population, an association between the MDCs in the anterior third of the central CT slice and treatment technique (p <0.001) and symptomatic RP (p <0.001) was found. Among patients with chest wall treatment consisting of an en-face electron beam, the MDCs of the anterior third of the central CT slice correlated with the 35% isodose curve (16-30 Gy) (p = 0.046) and age (p <0.001). No association between post-RT lung density changes and pre-RT chemotherapy, concurrent tamoxifen intake, or smoking habits was found. Among patients treated with locoregional RT, an association was found between the MDCs in the anterior third of the central CT slice and the incidence of RP. MDCs in the apical CT slice, however, were not associated with RP. CONCLUSION: The results imply that short-term post-RT lung density changes and symptomatic RP were associated with RT techniques, total doses as low as 16-30 Gy, and increasing age. Structural changes in the central part of lung appeared to be more important for the development of RP than changes in the apex.
UI - 11955731
AU - Johansson S; Svensson H; Denekamp J
TI - Dose response and latency for radiation-induced fibrosis, edema, and neuropathy in breast cancer patients.
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 Apr 1;52(5):1207-19
AD - Department of Radiation Sciences, Translational Research Group, Umea University Hospital, Sweden. email@example.com
PURPOSE: To study the incidence of various forms of late normal tissue injuries to determine the latency and dose-response relationships. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of 150 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy after mastectomy in the mid to late 1960s. None of the patients had received chemotherapy as a part of their primary treatment. Radiotherapy was delivered to the parasternal, axillary, and supraclavicular lymph node regions. Almost all the patients continued to be checked at regular 3-month to 1-year intervals at our Oncology Department. Detailed records were available for the entire 34 years of the follow-up period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. The prescribed dose was either 11 x 4 Gy (treated with 60Co photons) or 11 x 4 Gy or 14-15 x 3 Gy (treated with both 60Co photons and electrons). The dose recalculation at the brachial plexus where the axillary and supraclavicular beams overlapped was performed in the early 1970s and expressed in cumulative radiation effect (CRE) units. It varied widely among the individual patients. The received dose has now been converted to biologic effective dose(3) units, and from that into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions to plot the dose-response relationships. RESULTS: We present a comparison of the latency and frequency of fibrosis, edema, brachial plexus neuropathy, and paralysis in the three different subgroups and the total group. Dose-response relationships are shown at 5, 10, and 30 years after irradiation. CONCLUSION: The use of large daily fractions, combined with hotspots from overlapping fields, was the cause of the complications. Clear dose-response curves were seen for late radiation injuries. The incidence seen at 5 years did not represent the full spectrum of injuries. Doses that seem safe at 5 years can lead to serious complications later.
UI - 11955732
AU - Pierce LJ; Butler JB; Martel MK; Normolle DP; Koelling T; Marsh RB;
TI - Lichter AS; Fraass BA Postmastectomy radiotherapy of the chest wall: dosimetric comparison of common techniques.
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 Apr 1;52(5):1220-30
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0010, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: To compare seven techniques for irradiation of the postmastectomy chest wall (CW) using normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) predictions for pneumonitis and ischemic heart disease and dose-volume histogram analyses for normal and target tissues. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Plan comparisons were performed for 20 left-sided postmastectomy CW RT cases using target volumes based on clinical delineation of standard field borders. Seven common treatment techniques were planned for each case, using a prescription of 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the CW and internal mammary node (IMN) targets. NTCP model metrics were used to quantify the risks of pneumonitis and ischemic heart disease, supplemented by dose-volume metrics to assess the target coverage to the CW and IMNs, as well as normal tissue dose (lung and heart). RESULTS: Overlap in the distributions of the CW mean dose for all plans was found, except cobalt, which was significantly less than the remaining techniques (global F test, F = 21.90, p <0.0001). Standard tangents produced a significantly lower IMN mean dose than all other methods, as expected (F = 59.55, p < 0.0001); the reverse hockey stick and cobalt techniques were lower than the other methods, which were statistically similar. Cobalt produced a significantly higher percentage of the heart that received >30 Gy (V30) than the other methods (F = 49.76, p <0.0001). Use of partially wide tangent fields (PWTFs) resulted in the smallest heart V30. Use of cobalt fields resulted in a significantly greater NTCP estimate for ischemic heart disease than all the remaining techniques (F = 70.39, p <0.0001). Standard tangents resulted in a percentage of the lung receiving >20 Gy (V20) significantly less than with PWTFs, 30/70 and 20/80 photon/electron mix, and reverse hockey stick techniques. NTCP estimates for pneumonitis revealed significantly better results with standard tangents (F = 6.57, p <0.0001). CONCLUSION: No one technique studied combines the best CW and IMN coverage with minimal lung and heart complication probabilities. The choice of technique should be based on clinical discretion and the technical expertise available to implement these complex plans. Of the seven techniques studied, this analysis supports PWTFs as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing when irradiating the CW and IMN.
UI - 11955733
AU - Yap J; Chuba PJ; Thomas R; Aref A; Lucas D; Severson RK; Hamre M
TI - Sarcoma as a second malignancy after treatment for breast cancer.
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 Apr 1;52(5):1231-7
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.
BACKGROUND: Second malignant neoplasms may be a consequence of radiotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Prior studies evaluating sarcomas as second malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients have been limited by the numbers of patients and relatively low incidence of sarcoma. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries, we evaluated the influence of radiation therapy on the development of subsequent sarcomas in cases with primary breast cancer. METHODS: Cases with primary invasive breast cancer (n = 274,572) were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Cancer Incidence Public-Use Database (1973-1997). The database was then queried to determine the cases developing subsequent sarcomas (n = 263). Eighty-seven of these cases received radiation therapy, and 176 had no radiation therapy. The cumulative incidence of developing secondary sarcoma and the survival post developing secondary sarcoma were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The occurrence of sarcoma was low, regardless of whether cases received or did not receive radiation therapy: 3.2 per 1,000 (SE [standard error] = 0.4) and 2.3 per 1,000 (SE = 0.2) cumulative incidence at 15 years post diagnosis, respectively (p = 0.001). Of the sarcomas occurring within the field of radiation, angiosarcoma accounted for 56.8%, compared to only 5.7% of angiosarcomas occurring in cases not receiving radiotherapy. The cumulative incidence of angiosarcoma at 15 years post diagnosis was 0.9 per 1,000 for cases receiving radiation (SE = 0.2) and 0.1 per 1,000 for cases not receiving radiation (SE < 0.1). Overall survival was poor for cases of sarcoma after breast cancer (27-35% at 5 years), but not significantly different between patients receiving or not receiving radiation therapy for their primary breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer is associated with an increased risk of subsequent sarcoma, but the magnitude of this risk is small. Angiosarcoma is significantly more prevalent in cases treated with radiotherapy, occurring especially in or adjacent to the radiation field. The small difference in risk of subsequent sarcoma for breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy does not supersede the benefit of radiotherapy.
UI - 11977387
AU - Sautter-Bihl ML; Hultenschmidt B; Melcher U; Ulmer HU
TI - Radiotherapy of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer. Principle considerations on the basis of dosimetric data.
SO - Strahlenther Onkol 2002 Jan;178(1):18-24
AD - Department of Radiotherapy, Stadtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Germany. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMN) in breast cancer is discussed controversially due to its potential toxicity and debatable efficacy. Aim of the present study was to assess the cardiac and lung dose in 3-D planned radiotherapy and to discuss these results with regard to arguments pro and contra IMN irradiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 32 patients underwent 3-D planning (Helax TMS) for irradiation of breast and IMN in three different techniques either using separate IMN fields (A, B) or a wide tangent (C). For each technique the respective doses to the heart (including the base of the aorta and the ostium of the coronary arteries) and lung were analyzed in dose volume histograms. RESULTS: The mean dose to the heart (left side irradiation) was 6.4 Gy (A), 8.1 Gy (B) and 3.8 Gy (C). The mean dose to the lung was 11.7 Gy (A), 15.4 Gy (B) and 10.2 Gy (C). The 10-Gy isodose comprised 19.5% (A), 32.9% (B) and 5.6% (C) of the heart (left breast). The respective values for the 20-Gy isodose were 7.8, 11.5 and 4.4%. The irradiated volumes of the lung were 37.7% (A), 52.7% (B) and 20% (C) in the 10-Gy isodose. The 20-Gy isodose comprised 16.7% (A), 28.3% (B) and 17.8% (C). CONCLUSION: Whether radiotherapy of the IMN may improve treatment results in breast cancer is currently unresolved. However, the present data indicate that relevant cardiovascular side effects are unlikely to occur. Thus, the indication should be considered on the basis of individual risk factors.
UI - 11906388
AU - Chua B; Ung O; Boyages J
TI - Treatment of the axilla in early breast cancer: past, present and future.
SO - ANZ J Surg 2001 Dec;71(12):729-36
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, New South Wales, Australia.
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of the axilla in early breast cancer is controversial. The present study reviews the pattern and predictors of regional recurrence (RR) and prognosis after RR in patients with early breast cancer treated by conservative surgery and radiotherapy (CS + RT). Implications of the results on current practice and future directions are explored. METHODS: Between 1979 and 1994, 1158 patients with stage I or II breast cancer were treated with CS + RT at Westmead Hospital. Two groups of patients were compared: 782 patients who underwent axillary dissection (axillary surgery group) and 229 patients who received radiotherapy (axillary RT group) as the only axillary treatment. At least 10 lymph nodes were dissected in 82% of the axillary surgery group. Of the women in the RT group, 90% received RT to the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (SCF) only and 10% also received RT to the internal mammary chain (IMC). RESULTS: With a median follow-up period of 79 months for the axillary surgery group and 111 months for the axillary RT group, 27 patients developed a RR (2.8% and 2.2%, respectively). Seven patients (0.9%) in the axillary surgery group and three patients (1.3%) in the axillary RT group developed a RR in the axilla (P, not significant). Of the patients with SCF recurrences, 14 (1.8%) were in the axillary surgery group and one (0.4%) in the axillary RT group (P, not significant). One patient in the axillary surgery group developed concurrent axillary and SCF recurrences, while a patient in the axillary RT group developed an IMC recurrence. Twenty (74%) of the 27 patients with a RR developed a concurrent or subsequent distant relapse (30% and 44%, respectively). In the pathologically node-positive patients, the axillary recurrence rate was higher in those who had less than five nodes removed (17%) than those who had 10 or more nodes removed (0%; P = 0.01). The SCF recurrence rate was higher in patients with four or more positive axillary nodes (9.5%) than in those with 0-3 positive nodes (1.5%; P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Adequate treatment of the axilla by surgery or RT alone is associated with a low rate of RR. The incidence of distant relapse was substantial in patients who developed a RR, which gives emphasis to the importance of optimizing local-regional control.
UI - 11977644
AU - Wang S; Li Y; Yu Z
TI - [Postmastectomy radiotherapy for early breast cancer]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2002 Jan;24(1):68-70
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute (Hospital), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of postmastectomy radiotherapy for early breast cancer. METHODS: From 1983 to 1991, 605 patients with T1-2N0-1M0 breast cancer were treated by radical mastectomy in our hospital. 149 patients underwent surgery alone(S group), and the remaining 456 patients received further adjuvant treatment. Of these patients, 135 received postoperative radiotherapy(S + R group), 113 adjuvant chemotherapy or tamoxifen(S + Y group), and 208 adjuvant chemotherapy or tamoxifen plus radiotherapy(S + Y + R group). Here, chemotherapy plus tomoxifen is designated as systematically therapy. The locoregional recurrence (LRR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The differences in locoregional recurrence and survival between these groups were compared by logrank test. RESULTS: The 10-year actuarial LRR, OS and DFS rates for all patients were 13.4%, 81.6%, and 67.6%, respectively. The 10-year LRR rate was 10.3% for patients with negative axillary nodes, 9.4% for those with 1-3 positive nodes, and 25.9% for those with four or more positive nodes. The locoregional recurrence was significantly higher in patients with four or more positive nodes as compared to those with negative or 1-3 positive nodes (P < 0.05). For the S and S + R groups, the 10-year actuarial LRR rate was 18.7% in the S group and 7.5% in the S + R group (P = 0.017), the corresponding OS and DFS rates of these two groups were 82.1% and 81.1% (P = 0.618), and 65.2% and 71.6% (P = 0.457), respectively. For the S + Y and S + Y + R groups, the 10-year actuarial LRR rate was 21.1% in the S + Y group and 9.5% in the S + Y + R group (P = 0.001), There, the corresponding OS and DFS rates were 75.5% and 85.0% (P = 0.020), and 59.3% and 70.2% (P = 0.003), respectively. Only for patients with four or more positive nodes who had had systematic therapy, radiotherapy was beneficial; the 10-year actuarial LRR of patients who received systematic therapy only was 40.1% as compared with 15.1% of those who received systematic therapy plus radiotherapy; Their OS rates were 55.4% and 67.1% (P = 0.040) and their DFS rates were 30.5% and 57.3% (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Post-mastectomy radiotherapy is able to significantly decrease the locoregional recurrence and improve the survival of patients with four or more positive axillary nodes. We suggest that postmastectomy radiotherapy be given as routine for these patients.
UI - 11769959
AU - McNeese MD
TI - Post-mastectomy irradiation: the continuing controversy.
SO - Biomed Pharmacother 2001 Nov;55(9-10):519-23
AD - Breast Radiotherapy Services, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
UI - 11882903
AU - Polgar C; Fodor J; Major T; Orosz Z; Nemeth G
TI - The role of boost irradiation in the conservative treatment of stage I-II breast cancer.
SO - Pathol Oncol Res 2001;7(4):241-50
AD - National Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiotherapy Rath Gyorgy u. 7-9., Budapest, H-1122, Hungary. email@example.com
In this article, we review the current status, indication, technical aspects, controversies, and future prospects of boost irradiation after breast conserving surgery (BCS). BCS and radiotherapy (RT) of the conserved breast became widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of RT after breast conservation is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 45 to 50 Gy. However, there is no consensus among radiation oncologists about the necessity of boost dose to the tumor bed. Generally accepted criteria for identification of high risk subgroups, in which boost is recommended, have not been established yet. Further controversy exists regarding the optimal boost technique (electron vs. brachytherapy), and their impact on local tumor control and cosmesis. Based on the results of numerous retrospective and recently published prospective trials, the European brachytherapy society (GEC-ESTRO), as well as the American Brachytherapy Society has issued their guidelines in these topics. These guidelines will help clinicians in their medical decisions. Some aspects of boost irradiation still remain somewhat controversial. The final results of prospective boost trials with longer follow-up, involving analyses based on pathologically defined subgroups, will clarify these controversies. Preliminary results with recently developed boost techniques (intraoperative RT, CT-image based 3D conformal brachytherapy, and 3D virtual brachytherapy) are promising. However, more experience and longer follow-up are required to define whether these methods might improve local tumor control for breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and RT.
UI - 11839652
AU - Kouloulias VE; Dardoufas CE; Kouvaris JR; Gennatas CS; Polyzos AK; Gogas
TI - HJ; Sandilos PH; Uzunoglu NK; Malas EG; Vlahos LJ Liposomal doxorubicin in conjunction with reirradiation and local hyperthermia treatment in recurrent breast cancer: a phase I/II trial.
SO - Clin Cancer Res 2002 Feb;8(2):374-82
AD - Radiotherapy Department, Areteion University Hospital, Athens.
PURPOSE: This is the first study to evaluate the tolerability and activity of liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx; Schering-Plough Pharmaceuticals) < or =60 mg/km(2) in patients with locally recurrent breast cancer, when administered in conjunction with reirradiation and local hyperthermia treatment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fifteen female patients, who had undergone a radical mastectomy and conventional radiotherapy (60 Gy) in the front chest wall, were entered on a multimodal protocol consisting of initial treatment with radiotherapy and a monthly infusion of liposomal doxorubicin < or =60 mg/m(2) in conjunction with local hyperthermia treatment. All patients received reirradiation up to a total dose of 30.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction, 5 days a week). To evaluate the drug's safety, the first 5 patients initially received a dose of 40 mg/m(2) liposomal doxorubicin, which was then escalated to 60 mg/m(2). The other 10 patients received 60 mg/m(2) for all six cycles of chemotherapy. Hyperthermia (HT) was produced in the region of interest (ROI) using waveguides at a frequency of 433 MHz. The RSS was obtained from the curves representing the change in the ROI's surface with time for each patient, as fitted by linear regression. Linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the time interval from liposomal doxorubicin infusion to HT and the RSS. RESULTS: At doses of < or =60 mg/m(2), liposomal doxorubicin was well tolerated, with only mild hematological and nonhematological toxicity. All patients showed an objective measurable response, with 3 patients (20%) demonstrating a clinically complete response. There was a significant correlation between the duration of response and Avg Min T(90) > 44 degrees C (r(s) = 0.917, P < 0.0001) and the Mean[Tmin] (r(s) = 0.909, P < 0.0001). The RSS was significantly correlated with the interval between liposomal doxorubicin infusion and HT, as the smaller the time interval, the greater the clinical benefit (r = 0.76, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The multimodal treatment was effective and well tolerated, producing an objective measurable response in all patients. Local HT had a significant effect on patients' response to the drug. The relationship between thermal dose and liposomal action requires further investigation.
UI - 11767790
AU - Rollins G
TI - Amid controversy, panel recommends postmastectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer patients with limited lymph node involvement.
SO - Rep Med Guidel Outcomes Res 2001 Feb 8;12(3):1-2, 5
UI - 12007955
AU - Polednak AP
TI - Trends in, and predictors of, breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer in Connecticut, 1988-1997.
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 May 1;53(1):157-63
AD - Connecticut Tumor Registry, Connecticut Department of Public Health, 410 Capitol Avenue, Hartford, CT 06134-0308, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: To describe the trends in, and predictors of, use of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) vs. mastectomy and use of post-BCS radiotherapy (RT), from 1988 through 1997 among residents of Connecticut. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data on surgical and RT procedures for 16,676 women diagnosed with early-stage (localized to the breast or with regional lymph node involvement) invasive breast cancer in 1988-1997 were obtained from the population-based Connecticut Tumor Registry. RESULTS: Use of BCS (vs. mastectomy) increased over time and was lower for patients with nodal involvement or larger tumors. The absence of RT facilities at the hospital of first admission was negatively associated with BCS but not with post-BCS RT. Post-BCS RT was low among patients diagnosed at age 80+ years but increased over time only in this age group. CONCLUSION: Absence of RT at the hospital may be a deterrent to BCS. The temporal increase in post-BCS RT among patients diagnosed at age > or =80 years suggests changes in physicians' attitudes and/or patient preferences that require further study.
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