National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: January 1, 2002
UI - 11148566
AU - Yuen MF; Wu PC; Lai VC; Lau JY; Lai CL
TI - Expression of c-Myc, c-Fos, and c-jun in hepatocellular carcinoma.
SO - Cancer 2001 Jan 1;91(1):106-12
AD - Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
BACKGROUND: Increased expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc is a common phenomenon in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun are involved in cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation. METHODS: The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis with regard to the expressions of c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun. One hundred fifty biopsied HCC specimens were stained immunohistochemically for the above phenotypic markers both in tumor tissue and in adjacent nontumor tissue. RESULTS: Although the expression of c-myc was high (74%) in tumor tissue, it was significantly less compared with the expression in nontumor tissue (100%; P = 0.0002). The expression of c-myc was inversely proportional to the grade of differentiation in tumor tissue (P = 0.0108; correlation coefficient [r] = -0.244); that is, tissue with poorer histologic differentiation had a lower level of c-myc expression. There were inverse associations between the expression of c-myc and the expression of mutated p53 (P = 0.0017; r = -0.285) as well as the expression of Ki67 (P = 0.057; r = -0.147). There was significantly high expression of c-fos in tumor tissue compared with the expression in nontumor tissue (91% vs. 0%; P < 0.0001). Both the tumor tissue and the nontumor tissue had high levels of expression of c-jun (96.53% and 100%, respectively). There was a trend toward a positive association between the expression of c-fos and the expression of c-jun in tumor tissue (P = 0.07; r = 0.162). CONCLUSIONS: Because c-myc is a known inducer of wild type p53, decreased c-myc expression may lead to uncontrolled cell growth because of the lack of p53 expression that normally induces apoptosis. The coordinated expression of c-fos and c-jun in HCC may reflect the coordinated tumor cell cycle of progression and proliferation; however, future studies are required to elucidate this possibility. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
UI - 11436569
AU - Wilson SR; Burns PN
TI - Liver mass evaluation with ultrasound: the impact of microbubble contrast agents and pulse inversion imaging.
SO - Semin Liver Dis 2001 May;21(2):147-59
AD - Section of Ultrasound, Toronto General Hospital-University Health Network, Toronto M4N 3M5, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Liver mass evaluation includes two essential elements--lesion detection and lesion characterization. Both of these are greatly improved on sonography with the addition of contrast agents and the use of specialized imaging techniques, particularly pulse inversion imaging. Ultrasound contrast agents are comprised of tiny microbubbles of gas that interact with the ultrasound beam producing an enhancement of the Doppler signal from blood. Pulse inversion imaging allows preferential detection of the signal from the microbubble agents with suppression of the signal from background tissue. Two imaging techniques include a low mechanical index (MI) nondestructive method to show lesional vascularity and a high MI destructive mode that produces disruption of the bubbles in a single frame. The latter allows for quantitative assessment of the relative enhancement of a lesion as compared with the adjacent liver parenchyma, which is a reflection of the relative vascular volumes. Vascular imaging has shown characteristic and reproducible features of common liver masses, including hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver metastases. Delayed postvascular enhancement of the normal liver, a phenomenon that is unique to certain classes of microbubble contrast agents, allows detection of more and smaller malignant lesions than on baseline.
UI - 11436571
AU - Lin EC; Kuni CC
TI - Radionuclide imaging of hepatic and biliary disease.
SO - Semin Liver Dis 2001 May;21(2):179-94
AD - Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Box A-034, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA. Eugene.Lin@UCHSC.edu
This article will focus on common clinical applications of scintigraphy in focal hepatic lesions, acute cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia, biliary obstruction, postoperative liver and biliary tract, and neonatal cholestasis. The utility of positron emission tomography will also be addressed.
UI - 11436573
AU - Murakami T; Mochizuki K; Nakamura H
TI - Imaging evaluation of the cirrhotic liver.
SO - Semin Liver Dis 2001 May;21(2):213-24
AD - Department of Diagnostic Medicine (Radiology), Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine D1, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. email@example.com
Because recent advances in medical care decrease the mortality rate due to liver cirrhosis itself, many cirrhotic patients die due to hepatocellular carcinoma. Accordingly, the role of radiology in the evaluation of the patient with cirrhosis is primarily to characterize the morphologic manifestations of the disease, evaluate the hepatic and extrahepatic vasculature, assess the effects of portal hypertension, and detect hepatic tumors. When the latter are identified, a critical role of imaging technology is to differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma from other nodular lesions, such as dysplastic nodules and regenerating nodules. Screening strategies for patients with cirrhosis have been proposed to facilitate the detection of small, asymptomatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Dynamic studies using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are very useful for the diagnosis of hepatic tumors previously detected by ultrasound, as well as for screening. In Japan, patients with documented cirrhosis typically undergo serum alpha-fetoprotein testing and/or PIVKA-II (protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II) measurements every 2 months, ultrasound every 3 months, and CT or MRI every 6 months. This has resulted in great success in detecting small hepatocellular carcinomas (less than 2 cm in diameter) and early-stage well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas.
UI - 11436576
AU - Siegel MJ
TI - Pediatric liver imaging.
SO - Semin Liver Dis 2001 May;21(2):251-69
AD - Malllinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 South Kingshighway Blvd, St. Louis, MO 3110, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The evaluation of hepatic diseases in children is often a multimodality process, requiring multiple imaging tests to determine the cause and extent of an abnormality. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have distinct roles to play in the evaluation of hepatic disease in children. This article addresses the hepatic and biliary lesions that are unique or more common in children and describes their cross-sectional imaging characteristics. In addition, the techniques and protocols for US, CT, and MRI are reviewed.
UI - 11437089
AU - Bird SM; Goldberg DJ; Hutchinson SJ
TI - Projecting severe sequelae of injection-related hepatitis C virus epidemic in the UK. Part 2: Preliminary UK estimates of prevalent injection-related hepatitis C carriers, and derivation of progression rates to liver cirrhosis by gender and age at hepatitis C virus infection.
SO - J Epidemiol Biostat 2001;6(3):267-77; discussion 279-85
AD - MRC Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge, UK.
BACKGROUND: In Part 2, we illustrate how available data can be used to obtain preliminary estimates for Scotland of prevalent injection-related hepatitis C carriers and of maternally hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected infants. Novel approaches to reducing uncertainty about the number of Scotland's HCV infected children of injector parents are discussed in brief. Three approaches, one direct and two indirect, to estimating the number of current and ever-injectors are presented for England and Wales. METHODS: Diagnosed HCV infections in injectors and HCV test uptake by current injectors are combined with survey estimates for the ratio of ever-injectors to current injectors to estimate prevalent injection-related hepatitis C carriers. Household surveys give direct but potentially biased estimates of the number of current and ever-injectors. Indirect estimates make use of hepatitis C diagnoses in injectors, HCV prevalence and test-uptake by injectors, or exploit international comparisons. We comment on key reporting problems that inhibit synthesis of HCV progression studies; and suggest how to derive preliminary gender-and-age specific progression rates to liver cirrhosis for use in projections. RESULTS: Preliminary estimates for Scotland of prevalent injection-related hepatitis C carriers are: central estimate 39,000, inner uncertainty 16,000-59,000; of maternally hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected infants central estimate 260, uncertainty 110-1100; and for England and Wales estimates of the number of prevalent ever-injectors are central estimate 360,000, uncertainty 240,000-835,000. Both hepatitis C prevalence in injectors and estimated numbers of current injectors are similar in Australia, and England and Wales (but not so for Scotland), Australian work on projections of severe HCV sequelae from hepatitis C infections may therefore be a suitable starting point for projections for England and Wales. Australia anticipates a doubling in the number of persons living with hepatitis C cirrhosis from 8500 in 1997 to over 17,000 in 2010. DISCUSSION: Australian projections of severe HCV sequelae used progression rates that, for simplicity, were independent of gender and of age at HCV infection. Faster HCV progression for males, and their higher injector prevalence, means that the impact of HCV infection on, for example, liver cancer may be evident to a greater extent and earlier in males.
UI - 11434613
AU - Osada S; Carr BI
TI - Mechanism of novel vitamin K analog induced growth inhibition in human hepatoma cell line.
SO - J Hepatol 2001 May;34(5):676-82
AD - Second Department of Surgery, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu City, Japan. email@example.com
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To understand the mechanisms of liver regeneration or hepatoma apoptosis, it is important to estimate the turning point of the signal transduction by growth factor receptor. Since 2-(2-hydroxyethylsulfaryl) 3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone or CPD 5 has been shown to mediate the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in Hep3B hepatoma cells, the differences between EGF and CPD 5-mediated signal transduction were studied. METHODS: DNA content was measured by Hoechst fluorescent assay. Phosphorylated proteins were described with Western blots or two-dimensional electrophoresis. RESULTS: CPD 5-induced EGFR phosphorylation was functional to stimulate Ras pathway. However, CPD 5-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation was not antagonized by inhibition of upstream activation with PD153035. CPD 5 inhibited ERK dephosphorylation in cell lysate, suggesting that ERK phosphorylation by CPD 5 was depending on kinase activity and phosphatase inhibition. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed extra phospho ERK spot, which was indicated to have close association with CPD 5-induced growth inhibition, since U0126 antagonized growth inhibition and appearance of this spot. CONCLUSIONS: The turning point of EGFR pathway was proved to have close association with the expressed level of phosphorylated ERK. ERK phosphorylation was suggested to play a critical role in growth factor-induced signal transduction.
UI - 11494534
AU - Sakaguchi E; Kayano K; Segawa M; Aoyagi M; Sakaida I; Okita K
TI - [Th1/Th2 imbalance in HCV-related liver cirrhosis]
SO - Nippon Rinsho 2001 Jul;59(7):1259-63
AD - First Department of Internal Medicine in Yamaguchi University School of Medicine.
The mechanism by which Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection promotes the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is not known exactly. HCV related HCC occurs frequency in the patients with cirrhosis. There have been reports indicating that Th2-type cytokines down-regulated antitumor immunity, and the activation of type 1 T cell responses produced antitumor immunity. We thought Th1/Th2 imbalance in HCV-related liver cirrhosis might be closely related to the development of HCC. In this study, therefore, we investigated the Th1/Th2 balance at the single lymphocyte level of the patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis and compared with normal controls by using flow cytometry. Th1-type cytokines(IFN-gamma, IL-2) production was significantly decreased in patients with cirrhosis, whereas Th2-type cytokine production(IL-10) was increased. These suggest Th1/Th2 imbalance in HCV-related cirrhosis would decrease the antitumor immunity and its improvement might present the protective effect from HCC.
UI - 11494548
AU - Ikeda K; Arase Y; Kumada H
TI - [Hepatocellular carcinogenesis and prognosis of elderly patients with chronic hepatitis type C]
SO - Nippon Rinsho 2001 Jul;59(7):1338-44
AD - Department of Gastroenterology, Toranomon Hospital.
Among 457 elderly patients of 65 years or older with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus, 117 patients underwent interferon therapy for the elimination of hepatitis C virus. A total of 87 patients could be analyzed for the interferon effect, since the remaining 20 patients had still been receiving or just finished the therapy. Thirty-six patients(41.4%) achieved complete elimination of HCV-RNA with interferon therapy. Although those patients with a milder hepatitis stage and better virological condition(low viral concentration or group 2 subtype) were preferentially enrolled in the therapy, 13 patients(11.1%) discontinued the administration with varied side effects: severe general malaise in 6 patients, depression in 3, pneumonia/pneumonitis in 2, and retinopathy in 2. Crude hepatocellular carcinogenesis rates in the subgroup of F1 + F2 and the subgroup of F3 + F4 were 1.8%, 21.2% at the end of 5th year, and 14.3% and 53.7% at the tenth year, respectively.
UI - 11500061
AU - Fargion S; Stazi MA; Fracanzani AL; Mattioli M; Sampietro M; Tavazzi D;
TI - Bertelli C; Patriarca V; Mariani C; Fiorelli G Mutations in the HFE gene and their interaction with exogenous risk factors in hepatocellular carcinoma.
SO - Blood Cells Mol Dis 2001 Mar-Apr;27(2):505-11
AD - Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Universita di Milano, Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS, Milan, Italy. Silvia.Fargion@unimi.it
The possible role of iron in facilitating the development of liver cancer is still debated. The aims of this study were to define the prevalence of the mutations 845G --> A and 187C --> G (C282Y and H63D) in the HFE gene associated with hereditary hemochromatosis in Italian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in cirrhosis and to analyze the interaction between these mutations and other established risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. The HFE gene mutations, performed by polymerase chain reaction, were analyzed in 81 patients (63 males, 18 females) with hepatocellular carcinoma. None of the patients had a phenotype compatible with homozygous hereditary hemochromatosis. Interaction between HFE mutations and exogenous risk factors was analyzed by collecting information on alcohol consumption, hepatitis B and C virus infections, and iron status at the time of diagnosis of chronic liver disease. This analysis was performed only in males to rule out gender influence on patients' iron status by using the case-only approach specifically designed to estimate departure from multiplicative risk ratios under the assumption of independence between genotype and environmental exposure. The prevalence of the C282Y mutation was significantly higher in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma than in normal controls (8.6% vs 1.6%, P < 0.03). At univariate analysis, iron overload was significantly associated with both HFE mutations (P < 0.0001), whereas ongoing hepatitis B virus infection was associated with the C282Y mutation (P < 0.05). By multivariate analysis, a trend for an increased risk of being positive for hepatitis virus markers (OR 2.9, CI 95% 0.9-9.5) and of having been alcohol abusers (OR 3, CI 95% 0.7-14) was observed in patients heterozygous for the HFE mutations. These data indicate that the prevalence of the main mutation associated with hereditary hemochromatosis is significantly higher in cirrhotic Italian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma compared to a normal population and suggest that heterozygotes for HFE mutations exposed to hepatitis virus infections or who had been alcohol abusers could have an increased risk of developing cirrhosis and later liver cancer than people without the mutations exposed to the same risk factors. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
UI - 11508618
AU - Mann GN; Marx HF; Lai LL; Wagman LD
TI - Clinical and cost effectiveness of a new hepatocellular MRI contrast agent, mangafodipir trisodium, in the preoperative assessment of liver resectability.
SO - Ann Surg Oncol 2001 Aug;8(7):573-9
AD - Department of General Oncologic Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Improved preoperative assessment of focal liver disease and tumors could have a potentially significant impact on their treatment. Mangafodipir trisodium (Teslascan; Nycomed Amersham Imaging, Little Chalfont, UK) is a new hepatocellular contrast agent for use with state-of-the-art MR imaging that, in early reports, is accurate in detection and characterization of liver lesions. METHODS: Records and diagnostic images of all patients undergoing enhanced Teslascan MRI (T-MRI) at our institution were reviewed. We assessed the relative sensitivities of contrast-enhanced CT scan (CECT) and T-MRI in detecting lesions, as well as the impact of T-MRI in the decision to operate or not on patients. In those patients taken to surgery, the correlation between T-MRI and intraoperative palpation and intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) was determined. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were noted on CECT to have focal liver lesions and subsequently underwent imaging with T-MRI. The T-MRI correlated with CT findings in 22 patients (41%), upstaged the liver disease in 26, and demonstrated fewer lesions in 6. Only 43 patients were considered operative candidates and T-MRI influenced the operative decision in 32 patients (74%), dissuading operative intervention in 14. In the 25 patients without clear preoperative evidence of unresectability who were taken to the operating room, T-MRI correlated with findings of intraoperative palpation in 19 (76%). In the 20 patients who underwent IOUS, T-MRI correlated with IOUS in 14 patients (70%). IOUS detected an additional nine lesions, all of which were <1 cm. Seventeen patients underwent resection and/or ablation of their liver lesions. Compared with pathology, sensitivities of CECT, T-MRI, and intraoperative evaluation were 61%, 83%, and 93%, respectively. T-MRI failed to predict hepatic-specific unresectability in only one of eight patients, the other seven having extrahepatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that T-MRI is more sensitive than CECT in the preoperative predicting of the resectability of hepatic lesions. Despite T-MRI accurately correlating with intraoperative surgical findings, IOUS should be performed on all patients prior to a final decision to resect or ablate a focal liver lesion.
UI - 11500600
AU - Kwak BK; Shim HJ; Park ES; Kim SA; Choi D; Lim HK; Park CK; Chung JW;
TI - Park JH Hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor level and degree of enhancement by multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography.
SO - Invest Radiol 2001 Aug;36(8):487-92
AD - Cardiovascular Center, Department of Radiology, Yongsan Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a histopathological factor influencing contrast enhancement of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Twenty-two nodular HCCs underwent multiphase helical CT and surgery. Tumor size, histological grading of differentiation, and type of hepatitis were evaluated. Tumor attenuation was graded as hyperattenuated, isoattenuated, and hypoattenuated. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-VEGF antibody was performed and scored as weak, intermediate, or strong. Spearman's rank correlation test was used. RESULTS: Tumors ranged from 1.0 to 12.0 cm (mean 5.1 cm). The degree of enhancement during the hepatic arterial phase was significantly correlated with VEGF expression. Size was negatively correlated with VEGF expression and the degree of enhancement, but histological grade and type of hepatitis were not correlated with VEGF expression, tumor size, or degree of enhancement. CONCLUSIONS: In HCC, VEGF expression is correlated with the degree of contrast enhancement during arterial-phase CT.
UI - 11516021
AU - Sakai Y; Shoji R; Kim BS; Sakoda A; Suzuki M
TI - Cultured human-cell-based bioassay for environmental risk management.
SO - Environ Monit Assess 2001 Jul;70(1-2):57-70
AD - Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Japan. email@example.com
Among bioassays for evaluating various impacts of chemicals on humans and ecosystems, those based on cultured mammalian-cells can best predict acute lethal toxicity to humans. We expect them to be employed in the future in environmental risk management alongside mutagenicity tests and endocrine-disrupting activity tests. We recently developed a disposable bioassay device that immobilizes human hepatocarcinoma cells in a small micropipette tip. This enables very quick (within 2 h) evaluation of acute lethal toxicity to humans. For bioassay-based environmental management, 2 promising approaches have been demonstrated by the US-EPA: toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and toxicity reduction evaluation (TRE). The Japanese Ministry of Environment has been supporting a multi-center validation project, aimed at assembling a bioassay database. To make full use of these resources, we present a numerical model that describes contribution of individual chemical to observed toxicity. This will allow the selection of the most effective countermeasure to reduce the toxicity. Bioassay-based environmental risk management works retrospectively, whereas impact assessment using substance flow models and toxicity databases works prospective. We expect that these 2 approaches will exchange information, act complementarily, and work effectively in keeping our environment healthy in the 21 st century.
UI - 11509117
AU - Kumon K; Kobayashi H; Namiki T; Tsunematsu Y; Miyauchi J; Kikuta A;
TI - Horikoshi Y; Komada Y; Hatae Y; Eguchi H; Kaneko Y Frequent increase of DNA copy number in the 2q24 chromosomal region and its association with a poor clinical outcome in hepatoblastoma: cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization analysis.
SO - Jpn J Cancer Res 2001 Aug;92(8):854-62
AD - Department of Cancer Chemotherapy, Saitama Cancer Center Hospital, Ina, Saitama 362-0806, Japan.
In a cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) study of 38 hepatoblastomas, we found gain of 1q in 17 tumors (44.7%), that of 2 / 2q in 14 (36.8%), that of 20 / 20q in 9 (23.7%) and that of 8 / 8q in 8 (21.0%), loss of 4q in 4 (10.5%) and no DNA copy changes with normal karyotype or no mitotic cells in 11 (28.9%). Eleven tumors with 2 / 2q gain detected by CGH had a total chromosome 2 gain, a partial 2q gain, or a total chromosome 2 gain with an augmented partial 2q region; the common region for DNA copy gain was 2q24. Two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses using probes covering the centromere of chromosome 2 or HOXD13 (2q31) confirmed the CGH findings, and showed that the common region for gain in 2q was centromeric to HOXD13. Event-free survival (EFS) +/- standard error (SE) at 5 years was lowest in patients with 2q gain [37 +/- 15%], highest in those with no DNA copy changes [82 +/- 12%], and intermediate in those with DNA copy changes other than 2q gain [74 +/- 13%] (P = 0.0549). Multivariate analysis showed that 2q gain was an independent factor predicting a poor outcome. These findings suggest the presence of a growth-promoting gene or an oncogene in the 2q24 chromosome band, and a tumor suppressor gene in terminal 4q, which have important roles in the development and progression of hepatoblastoma.
UI - 11513719
AU - Li FQ; Yoshizawa T; Kawamura O; Luo XY; Li YW
TI - Aflatoxins and fumonisins in corn from the high-incidence area for human hepatocellular carcinoma in Guangxi, China.
SO - J Agric Food Chem 2001 Aug;49(8):4122-6
AD - Department of Biochemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan.
A comparative study on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins and Fusarium toxins was conducted with corn samples from high- and low-incidence areas for human primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) in Guangxi, China. In samples from the high-risk area, aflatoxin B(1) was the predominant toxin detected in terms of quantity and frequency, with its concentration ranging between 9 and 2496 microg/kg and an 85% incidence of contamination. Among the samples, 13 (76%) exceeded the Chinese regulation of 20 microg/kg for aflatoxin B(1) in corn and corn-based products intended for human consumption. Significant differences in aflatoxin B(1), B(2), and G(1) and total aflatoxin concentrations in corn between the areas were found (P < 0.05). The average daily intake of aflatoxin B(1) from corn in the high-risk area was 184.1 microg, and the probable daily intake is estimated to be 3.68 microg/kg of body weight/day, 3.20 times the TD(50) in rats. Corn samples from both areas were simultaneously contaminated with fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3). Aflatoxin B(1) may play an important role in the development of PHC in Guangxi.
UI - 11525595
AU - Chen SY; Chen CJ; Tsai WY; Ahsan H; Liu TY; Lin JT; Santella RM
TI - Associations of plasma aflatoxin B1-albumin adduct level with plasma selenium level and genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1.
SO - Nutr Cancer 2000;38(2):179-85
AD - Columbia University School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extraordinarily high in Matzu, an island off the coast of Southeastern China. To investigate factors associated with plasma aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-albumin adduct level, we studied 304 healthy adult residents from Matzu. AFB1-albumin adducts were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hepatitis B surface antigen status by enzyme immunoassay, genotypes of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and T1 by polymerase chain reaction, plasma selenium by atomic absorption spectrometry, and plasma retinol, alpha-tocopherol, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Men had higher AFB1-albumin adduct levels than women. GSTM1-nonnull and GSTT1-null genotypes and low plasma selenium level were significantly associated with an increased level of AFB1-albumin adducts among men, whereas age was significantly correlated with adduct level among women. High intake of fermented beans was associated with an increased adduct level among men and women. The inverse associations between plasma selenium level and AFB1-albumin adducts were statistically significant among those with null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1, but not among the nonnull genotypes. This study provides insight into the dietary and genetic factors influencing AFB1-albumin adduct formation in an isolated population with high liver cancer mortality.
UI - 11525608
AU - Chen CH; Huang LL; Huang CC; Lin CC; Lee Y; Lu FJ
TI - Baicalein, a novel apoptotic agent for hepatoma cell lines: a potential medicine for hepatoma.
SO - Nutr Cancer 2000;38(2):287-95
AD - Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Republic of China.
This study has demonstrated that baicalein has anticancer effectiveness against human hepatoma cells. The dose response of baicalein in Hep G2 and Hep J2 cells indicates that baicalein decreased viability >90%. In comparison, baicalein had only minimal effects on the viability of control Chang liver cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that baicalein inhibited the cell cycle of Hep G2 cells in the S phase. In addition, baicalein treatment resulted in a decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential and damaged the integrity of the cell membrane. The TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay results indicated that baicalein elicited a significant increase of DNA fragmentation in Hep G2 cells after incubation for 48 hours. These results indicate that baicalein is an effective antihepatoma agent with minimal influence on noncancer cells. The effects of baicalein on Hep G2 cells include inhibition of the S phase of the cell cycle, dysfunction of mitochondria, and initiation of apoptosis.
UI - 11521181
AU - Matsuda M; Fujii H; Kono H; Matsumoto Y
TI - Surgical treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma based on the mode of recurrence: repeat hepatic resection or ablation are good choices for patients with recurrent multicentric cancer.
SO - J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2001;8(4):353-9
AD - First Department of Surgery, Yamanashi Medical University, Tamaho, Nakakoma, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.
Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) often recur after curvative resection. Recurrence in the remnant liver originates from intrahepatic metastasis (IM) from the primary resected tumor, and/or from multicentric (MC) occurrence. In order to achieve better survival after intrahepatic recurrence in HCC patients, we have surgically treated patients according to the recurrence pattern. In this study, we investigated the advantage of repeat surgery for MC recurrent HCC. The subjects were 176 patients who had undergone primary macroscopically complete tumor removal for HCC at our department from 1984 to 1999. Differential diagnosis of IM and MC recurrence was done by pathological analysis. Twenty-nine of the 149 patients with recurrence (19.5%) underwent a total of 31 second and third operations. Of the 29 patients, 18 had MC (14 received repeat hepatectomy and 4, microwave tissue coagulation [MTC]), 7 had IM (4 had repeat hepatectomy and 3, MTC), and, in 4 patients, pathological investigation failed to determine the mode of recurrence. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates for MC patients after the repeat operations were 100%, 69.7%, and 58.1%, respectively, and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates for the IM patients were 57.1%, 14.3%, and 14.3%, respectively. Survival after the repeat operation was significantly better in the MC group than in the IM group (P = 0.0016). Moreover, there was no significant difference between survival in the MC group after a repeat operation and survival in control patients after an initial hepatectomy (P = 0.9282). These results indicated that patients with resectable or ablative recurrent MC HCC have almost the same survival benefit after repeat operations as patients who undergo initial curative resection of HCC.
UI - 11528252
AU - Toyoda H; Kumada T; Nakano S; Takeda I; Sugiyama K; Kiriyama S; Sone Y;
TI - Tanikawa M; Hisanaga Y; Hayashi K; Honda T Effect of the dose and duration of interferon-alpha therapy on the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in noncirrhotic patients with a nonsustained response to interferon for chronic hepatitis C.
SO - Oncology 2001;61(2):134-42
AD - Department of Gastroenterology, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Ogaki, Japan.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of dose and duration of treatment with interferon (IFN)-alpha on the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after IFN treatment