National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: January 1, 2002
UI - 10741714
AU - Chen TC; Schwartz GG; Burnstein KL; Lokeshwar BL; Holick MF
TI - The in vitro evaluation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 19-nor-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 as therapeutic agents for prostate cancer.
SO - Clin Cancer Res 2000 Mar;6(3):901-8
AD - Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, Massachusetts 02118, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Prostate cancer cells contain specific receptors [vitamin D receptors (VDRs)] for 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3), which is known to inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of these cells. These findings support the use of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 for prostate cancer therapy. However, because 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 can cause hypercalcemia, analogues of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 that are less calcemic but that exhibit potent antiproliferative activity would be attractive as therapeutic agents. We investigated the effects of two different types of less calcemic vitamin D compounds, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and 19-nor-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 [19-nor-1,25(OH)2D2], and compared their activity to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 on (a) the proliferation of primary cultures and cell lines of human prostate cancer cells; and (b) the transactivation of the VDRs in the androgen-insensitive PC-3 cancer cell line stably transfected with VDR (PC-3/ VDR). 19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2D2, an analogue of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 that was originally developed for the treatment of parathyroid disease, has been shown to be less calcemic than 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in clinical trials. Additionally, we recently showed that human prostate cells in primary culture possess 25(OH)D3-1alpha-hydroxylase, an enzyme that hydroxylates the inactive prohormone, 25(OH)D3, to the active hormone, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, intracellularly. We reasoned that the hormone that is formed intracellularly would inhibit prostate cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion. We found that 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and 19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 caused similar dose-dependent inhibition in the cell lines and primary cultures in the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay and that both compounds were significantly more active in the primary cultures than in LNCaP cells. Likewise, 25(OH)D3 had inhibitory effects comparable to those of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in the primary cultures. In the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene transactivation assay in PC-3/ VDR cells, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and 19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 caused similar increases in CAT activity between 10(-11)and 10(-9) M. Incubation of PC-3/VDR cells with 5 x 10(-8) M 25(OH)D3 induced a 29-fold increase in CAT activity, similar to that induced by 10(-8) M 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. In conclusion, our data indicate that 25(OH)D3 and 19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 represent two different solutions to the problem of hypercalcemia associated with vitamin D-based therapies: 25(OH)D3 requires the presence of 1alpha-hydroxylase, whereas 19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 does not. Both drugs are approved for human use and may be good candidates for human clinical trials in prostate cancer.
UI - 11370498
AU - Wallner K
TI - Improved outcomes with radiation for prostate cancer.
SO - Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2001 Apr;15(2):359-75
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, and Puget Sound Health Care System, Veterans Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA.
During the last 15 years, a series of substantial technical improvements have occurred in external beam radiation and brachytherapy. The introduction of PSA-based posttreatment monitoring has allowed a reasonable comparison between each radiation modality and prostatectomy. Such comparisons show more similarities than differences. Probably the most exciting finding in regard to curing cancer is that higher-risk patients have a more favorable prognosis than previously recognized using higher doses now achievable with either form of radiation.
UI - 11432621
AU - Kornblith AB; Herndon JE 2nd; Zuckerman E; Godley PA; Savarese D;
TI - Vogelzang NJ; Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) The impact of docetaxel, estramustine, and low dose hydrocortisone on the quality of life of men with hormone refractory prostate cancer and their partners: a feasibility study.
SO - Ann Oncol 2001 May;12(5):633-41
AD - Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NYC, New York, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVES: The quality of life (QoL) of 44 men with HRPC and 37 partners (primary caregivers, most residing with the patient) was assessed in a multicenter Phase II trial of docetaxel, estramustine and low dose hydrocortisone (CALGB 9780). A secondary objective was to test the feasibility of assessing partners' QoL in a cooperative group setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients and partners were separately interviewed by telephone at baseline, two, four and six months by a single trained research interviewer. Patients' QoL was measured by the FACT-P, Mental Health Inventory-17 (MHI-17), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), a two-day log of pain medications, and the OARS for co-morbid conditions. Partners' QoL was measured by the MHI-17, Caregiver Burden Interview, and co-morbid conditions. RESULTS: The QoL study refusal rates were low for patients (4%) and partners (3%). Although patients tended to experience greater treatment side effects in the first two months (FACT Physical Well-Being item, P = 0.057), their cancer-specific emotions (e.g., worrying about worsening health) significantly improved at two and four months (FACT-Emotional Well-Being, P = 0.003, P = 0.03, respectively), as did their prostate cancer-specific physical problems (e.g., urination, pain), at two and four months (FACT-P, P = 0.001, P = 0.005, respectively). Partners' anxiety significantly decreased over time (MHI, P < 0.05). Patients' quality of life at two months was significantly related to their clinical response (FACT-P total and prostate cancer-specific problems, P < 0.05), and their clinical response was significantly related to a decrease in their partners' anxiety at two months (MHI, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite feeling worse from side effects, patients' prostate cancer-specific problems and emotional state significantly improved in the first four months of treatment. With treatment significantly affecting both patients' and partners' lives. and the successful assessment of partners' QoL, QoL of both patients and partners could be used as important endpoints in selected clinical trials.
UI - 11432036
AU - Rado Velazquez MA; Portillo Martin JA; Martin Garcia B; Hernandez
TI - Rodriguez R; Correas Gomez MA; Gutierrez Banos JL; del Valle Schaan JI; Roca Edreira A; Hernandez Castrillo A [Correlation between imaging findings and anatomopathologic results in radical prostatectomy. Data from our series]
SO - Arch Esp Urol 2001 Apr;54(3):219-27
AD - Servicio de Urologia, Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Espana. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the diagnostic methods utilized in prostate cancer and the preoperative information on the extent of the tumor, and compare these results with those obtained from anatomopathological analyses of the radical prostatectomy specimen. METHODS: Data on the radical prostatectomies performed during the study period were obtained from the Admissions and Clinical Records services and were analyzed using the SPSS statistical analysis software for Windows. RESULTS: From 1991 to 1998, 109 radical prostatectomies were performed. Evaluation by transrectal US was carried out in 89 patients (81.6%) and detected a tumor (unilateral or bilateral) in 77, for a sensitivity of 86% (CI 78.8-93.2). A CT study was performed in 94 patients and was positive in 25, for a sensitivity of 26.5% (CI 17.6-35.4). The sensitivity for transrectal US and CT were 4.17% and 3.33% for capsular involvement, 5.88% and 5.26% for seminal vesicle involvement, and 0% and 0% for node involvement, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Transrectal ultrasound is a reliable diagnostic imaging method, although it has a low sensitivity when used to determine the extent of the tumor. In our series, the radiological methods showed a low sensitivity when they were utilized to determine the extent of the prostate cancer. Routine preoperative assessment by CT can be obviated in prostate cancer.
UI - 11482194
AU - Danilov VV; Borshchenko SA; Danilova TI; Medvedeva IA
TI - [Prospects for differentiated conservative treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia]
SO - Klin Khir 2001 Apr;(4):45-7
The results of conservative therapy of 30 patients aged from 50 to 79 years with benign hyperplasia of prostate according to the IPSS scale from 7 to 30 points were analyzed. Under the influence of treatment in all the patients the clinical symptoms severity, according to the monitoring data using the IPSS tables, had reduced by 72% at average and quality of life improve no less than by 50%. Average efficacy of the volume and volumetric of urination had enhanced according to uroflowmetry data.
UI - 11441519
AU - Incrocci L; Madalinska JB; Essink-Bot ML; Van Putten WL; Koper PC;
TI - Schroder FH Sexual functioning in patients with localized prostate cancer awaiting treatment.
SO - J Sex Marital Ther 2001 Jul-Sep;27(4):353-63
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, EMCR/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, P.O. Box 5201, 3008 AE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. email@example.com
This article evaluates current sexual functioning in patients with prostate cancer who are awaiting treatment. One-hundred fifty-eight patients filled out a 15-item questionnaire regarding current sexual functioning. Median age was 67 years. Sixty percent reported to have spontaneous erections at least once a week, and 37% reported a good firmness. Thirty-five percent reported that during sexual activity they had no difficulty in getting erections, and 33% reported that they had no difficulty in maintaining an erection. After diagnosis, all patients reported a decrease in sexual interest, activity, and pleasure. Diagnosis of prostate cancer does have an impact on sexual functioning, therefore sexual counseling prior to treatment is advised.
UI - 11418309
AU - Mincheff M; Altankova I; Zoubak S; Tchakarov S; Botev C; Petrov S;
TI - Krusteva E; Kurteva G; Kurtev P; Dimitrov V; Ilieva M; Georgiev G; Lissitchkov T; Chernozemski I; Meryman HT In vivo transfection and/or cross-priming of dendritic cells following DNA and adenoviral immunizations for immunotherapy of cancer--changes in peripheral mononuclear subsets and intracellular IL-4 and IFN-gamma lymphokine profile.
SO - Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2001 Jul-Aug;39(1-2):125-32
AD - Biomedical Research Institute, 12111 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
In order to provoke an immune response, a tumor vaccine should not only maximize antigen-specific signals, but should also provide the necessary "co-stimulatory" environment. One approach is to genetically manipulate tumor cells to either secrete lymphokines (GM-CSF, IL-12, IL-15) or express membrane bound molecules (CD80, CD86). Furthermore, patient dendritic cells can be loaded with tumor-associated antigens or peptides derived from them and used for immunotherapy. Genetic modification of dendritic cells can also lead to presentation of tumor-associated antigens. Transfection of dendritic cells with DNA encoding for such antigens can be done in vitro, but transfection efficiency has been uniformly low. Alternatively, dendritic cells can also be modulated directly in vivo either by "naked" DNA immunization or by injecting replication-deficient viral vectors that carry the tumor specific DNA. Naked DNA immunization offers several potential advantages over viral mediated transduction. Among these are the inexpensive production and the inherent safety of plasmid vectors, as well as the lack of immune responses against the carrier. The use of viral vectors enhances the immunogenicity of the vaccine due to the adjuvant properties of some of the viral products. Recent studies have suggested that the best strategy for achieving an intense immune response may be priming with naked DNA followed by boosting with a viral vector. We have successfully completed a phase I and phase II clinical trials on immunotherapy of prostate cancer using naked DNA and adenoviral immunizations against the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and phase I clinical trial on colorectal cancer using naked DNA immunization against the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The vaccination was tolerated well and no side effects have been observed so far. The therapy has proven to be effective in a number of patients treated solely by immunizations. The success of the treatment clearly depends on the stage of the disease proving to be most efficient in patients with minimal disease or no metastases. A panel of changes in the phenotype of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the expression of intra-T-cell lymphokines seems to correlate with clinical improvement.
UI - 11474933
AU - Shera MD; Gladman AS; Davidson SR; Trachtenberg J; Gertner MR
TI - Helical antenna arrays for interstitial microwave thermal therapy for prostate cancer: tissue phantom testing and simulations for treatment.
SO - Phys Med Biol 2001 Jul;46(7):1905-18
AD - Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.
Interstitial microwave therapy is an experimental treatment for prostate cancer. The objective of this work was to measure the power deposition (specific absorption rate, SAR) patterns of helical microwave antennae both individually and in array patterns that would be useful for clinical treatment protocols. Commercial helical antenna 3D SAR patterns were measured in muscle equivalent phantoms using a thermographic technique. Two array patterns were tested: a 'square' and a 'crescent' array, both surrounding the urethra. To assess the feasibility of pre-treatment planning, the measured SAR patterns were input to a treatment planning computer simulation program based on a series of trans-rectal ultrasound images from a prostate cancer patient. The simulation solved the Pennes linear bioheat heat transfer equation in prostate tissue, with the aim of achieving a target of 55 degrees C at the prostate periphery while not allowing normal surrounding tissues (bladder, urethra, rectum) to rise above 42 C. These criteria could not be met with the square array but they could be met with the crescent array, provided that the prostate was first dissected away from the rectum. This can be done with a procedure such as 'hydrodissection', where sterile saline is injected to separate the prostate and rectum. The results of these SAR measurements and heat transfer simulations indicate that arrays of helical antennae could be used for safe and effective thermal therapy for prostate cancer.
UI - 11488571
AU - Kermode RH; Locks SM
TI - Technical note: check software for use with trans-rectal ultrasound guided I-125 seed prostate implants.
SO - Med Phys 2001 Jul;28(7):1406-9
AD - Regional Medical Physics Department, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom. email@example.com
In-house software has been developed to enable the dose distribution of a commercial treatment planning system to be verified prior to permanent trans-rectal ultrasound guided I-125 seed implantation of the prostate. Printouts enabling the required loading pattern to be communicated to other staff groups are also generated. This software can be obtained via the authors and the AAPM software exchange (URL: http://aapm.org/medphys/resources/software/index.htm).
UI - 11488572
AU - Li Z; Nalcacioglu IA; Ranka S; Sahni SK; Palta JR; Tome W; Kim S
TI - An algorithm for automatic, computed-tomography-based source localization after prostate implant.
SO - Med Phys 2001 Jul;28(7):1410-5
AD - Radiation Oncology Center, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Permanent implant of the prostate using I-125 and Pd-103 seeds is a popular choice of treatment for early-stage prostate cancer in the United States. Evaluation of the quality of the implant is best based on the calculated dose distribution from postimplant computed tomography (CT) images. This task, however, has been time-consuming and inaccurate. We have developed an algorithm for automatic source localization from postimplant CT images. The only requirement of this algorithm is knowledge of the number of seeds present in the prostate, thus minimizing the need for human intervention. The algorithm processes volumetric CT data from the patient, and pixels of higher CT numbers are categorized into classes of definite and potential source pixels. A multithresholding technique is used to further determine the number of seeds and their precise locations in the CT volume data. A graphic user interface was developed to facilitate operator review of and intervention in the calculation and the results of the algorithm. This algorithm was tested on two phantoms containing nonradioactive seeds, one with 20 seeds in discrete locations and another with 100 seeds with small distances between seeds. The tests showed that the algorithm was able to identify the seed locations to within 1 mm of their physical locations for discrete seed locations. It was further able to separate seeds at close proximity to each other while maintaining an average seed localization error of less than 2 mm, with no operator intervention required.
UI - 11488204
AU - Cambeiro M; Azinovic I; Villafranca E; Moreno-Jimenez M; Canon R; Aristu
TI - JJ; Beltran C; Lopez-Picazo JM; Fernandez J; Rebollo J [Effect of PSA nadir and the time to nadir in the disease-free period in localized prostatic carcinoma treated with radical radiation]
SO - Rev Med Univ Navarra 2001 Jan-Mar;45(1):20-8
AD - Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Departamento de Oncologia, Clinica Universitaria, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Navarra. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of PSA nadir (nPSA) and the time to nadir in disease free of recurrence (DFR) in localized carcinoma of prostate treated with radical radiotherapy (RTR). MATERIAL treated with prostate carcinoma. It was considered of Low risk those patients with PSA < or = 10 ng/ml, Gleason = 6 or stage T1-T2. Moderate risk: those with one elevated of the three parameters. High risk: two or more parameters. The treatment was carried out in a lineal accelerator using photons of 15 MV, with standard technique and frationation, administering a median dose of 66 Gy (58-75 Gy). It was defined disease free of recurrence (DFR), the time to clinical PSA or biochemical failure. This one was defined as the time starting from the date of nadir PSA to the second consecutive increase of PSA value after three separate serial measurements separated for at least one month. RESULTS: The median of initial PSA value was of 16 ng/ml (1-270), initial clinical stage T1-T2 (70p), stages T3-T4 (14p), and unknown in 2p. The median of Gleason score was 6 (2-10). According to the group of risk they were classified as: low risk in 16 patients (19%), moderated risk in 22 patients (26%), high risk in 21 patients (24%), and unknown in 27 patients (31%). Median nPSA value was 0.8 ng/ml (limits: 0-139) and the median time elapsed between the initial PSA and nPSA has been of 11 months (limits: 0-72 months). The actuarial DFR projected to five years in those patients with nPSA = 1 ng/ml was of 67% vs. 47% in patient with nPSA figures > 1 ng/ml (p = 0.0018). The PFD in patients with time to nadir (t nadir) < 12 months it was of 20% vs. 80% in patients with t nadir > 12 months (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that time to nadir (H.R: 0.11 p = 0.001), group of risk (H.R: 28.72 p = 0.020), and grade of differentiation (HR: 28.72 p = 0.010), were determinant to DFR. CONCLUSIONS: nPSA is an important factor to determine the objective response to radiotherapy. nPSA and time to nadir are prognostic factors that influences significantly on the DFR. The indication of adjuvant treatment in those patients with unfavorable prognostic factors such us those who do not reach nadir PSA < or = 1 ng/ml and time to nadir < or = 12 months, deserves the realization of a prospective study.
UI - 11499687
AU - Chen TC
TI - Prostate cancer and spinal cord compression.
SO - Oncology (Huntingt) 2001 Jul;15(7):841-55; discussion 855,859-61
AD - University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Prostate cancer metastasis to the spine is an extremely difficult clinical problem to treat. However, it occurs commonly, and all clinicians--not only oncologists--should undertake to understand its pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and current treatment options. This review emphasizes the surgical treatment of prostate cancer metastasis to the spine. The goals of this article are to (1) present an overview of the pathophysiology of this disease, with an emphasis on the mechanisms of metastasis and invasion, (2) provide a general overview of the clinical presentation and diagnosis of metastatic prostate carcinoma, and (3) discuss currently available treatment options. Such options include best medical management, nonsurgical treatments (radiation, chemotherapy), and surgical treatment of newly diagnosed and previously irradiated metastatic prostate carcinoma to the spine. Algorithms for the treatment of this disease are presented.
UI - 11493363
AU - George J; Nuttall SL; Kendall MJ
TI - Prostate cancer and antioxidants.
SO - J Clin Pharm Ther 2001 Aug;26(4):231-3
AD - Clinical Pharmacology Section, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.
UI - 11505537
AU - Loran OB; Pushkar' DIu; Kosko D; Bernikov AN
TI - [Bicalutamide monotherapy of patients with disseminated forms of prostatic cancer]
SO - Urologiia 2001 May-Jun;(3):26-8
Combined antiandrogen therapy (complete androgen blocking) implies surgical or chemical castration in combination with antiandrogen therapy. Both sources of androgens are thus blocked in patients with locally disseminated prostatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of bikalutamide (150 mg) monotherapy. The study was carried out in 58 patients with prostatic cancer (stages T3-T4) divided into 2 groups: 1) bikalutamide monotherapy (150 mg daily) and 2) bikalutamide (50 mg daily) + bilateral orchidectomy. All patients were examined before and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the beginning of therapy. The efficiency of non-steroid antiandrogen was higher in group 1. The mean level of prostate-specific antigen in this group decreased to 10.6 ng/ml by 24 months, while in group 2 to 25.3 ng/ml. Hence, bicalutamide was effective, safe, and well tolerated in our study, and is therefore recommended as monotherapy for patients with disseminated forms of prostatic cancer.
UI - 11512605
AU - Eaton HJ; Phillips PJ; Hanieh A; Cooper J; Bolt J; Torpy DJ
TI - Rapid onset of pituitary apoplexy after goserelin implant for prostate cancer: need for heightened awareness.
SO - Intern Med J 2001 Jul;31(5):313-4
UI - 11517824
AU - Sciarra A; Di Chiro C; Voria G; Colella D; Loreto A; Pastore AL; Di
TI - Silverio F Intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) in patients with localized prostate cancer and a biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy.
SO - Minerva Urol Nefrol 2000 Mar;52(1):1-6
AD - Department of Urology U. Bracci, University La Sapienza, Viale Policlinico, 00161 Rome.
BACKGROUND: To analyze the modifications in serum PSA levels during IAD in patients with an initial PSA progression after radical retropubic consecutive patients with an initial PSA progression (> 0.4 ng/ml) after RRP were selected. All men had localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate, stage pT2 pN0 M0. Patients were offered IAD when PSA progressed over 0.4 ng/ml. The initial treatment period with complete androgen deprivat