National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: February 1, 2002
UI - 2072890
AU - Anonymous
TI - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection codes and new codes for Kaposi's sarcoma.
SO - MMWR Recomm Rep 1991 Jul 26;40(RR-9):1-18
These addenda for Volumes 1 and 2 of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), are reported by the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Classification of Diseases for North America at the National Center for Health Statistics. These addenda replace the addendum containing codes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (042.0-044.9) that were effective January 1, 1988. These addenda will be effective October 1, 1991, and are the second revision of these codes for the classification of HIV infection. These addenda incorporate minor changes in content of the classification reflecting new scientific knowledge. The structure of the classification, the codes within the classification, and the manner in which the codes may be used remain unchanged. These changes are effective only for morbidity purposes; the cause-of-death codes are unchanged.
UI - 11779265
AU - Osmond DH; Buchbinder S; Cheng A; Graves A; Vittinghoff E; Cossen CK;
TI - Forghani B; Martin JN Prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in homosexual men at beginning of and during the HIV epidemic.
SO - JAMA 2002 Jan 9;287(2):221-5
AD - Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. email@example.com
CONTEXT: Some studies have inferred that an epidemic of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection in homosexual men in the United States occurred concurrently with that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but there have been no direct measurements of KSHV prevalence at the beginning of the HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of KSHV infection in homosexual men in San Francisco, Calif, at the beginning of the HIV epidemic in 1978 and 1979 and to examine changes in prevalence of KSHV at time points from 1978 through 1996 in light of changes in sexual behavior. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of a clinic-based sample (n = 398) derived from the San Francisco City Clinic Cohort (ages 18-66 years) (n = 2666 for analyses herein) and from population-based samples from the San Francisco Men's Health Study (MHS) (ages 25-54 years) (n = 825 and 252) and the San Francisco Young Men's Health Study (YMHS) (ages 18-29 years) (n = 428-976, and 557); behavioral studies were longitudinal and KSHV prevalence studies were cross-sectional. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Antibodies against KSHV and HIV; sexual behaviors. RESULTS: The prevalence of KSHV infection in 1978 and 1979 was 26.5% of 235 (a random sample) overall (weighted for HIV infection) vs 6.9% (128/1842) for HIV in the San Francisco City Clinic Cohort sample. The prevalence of KSHV infection remained essentially unchanged between an MHS sample of 252 in 1984 and 1985 (29.6%) and a YMHS sample of 557 in 1995 and 1996 (26.4%), while HIV prevalence dropped from 49.5% of 825 in 1984 and 1985 (MHS) to 17.6% of 428 in 1992 and 1993 (YMHS). The proportion of men practicing unprotected receptive anal intercourse with 1 or more partners declined from 54% to 11% during the 1984 through 1993 period (MHS) with similar though slightly higher values in the YMHS in 1992 and 1993; whereas for unprotected oral intercourse it ranged between 60% and 90% in the 1984 through 1996 period (MHS and YMHS). CONCLUSIONS: Infection with KSHV was already highly prevalent in homosexual men when the HIV epidemic began in San Francisco, and its prevalence has been maintained at a nearly constant level. Any declines in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma do not appear to be caused by a decline in KSHV transmission.
UI - 11737354
AU - Spano JP; Salhi Y; Costagliola D; Rozenbaum W; Girard PM
TI - Factors predictive of disease progression and death in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
SO - HIV Med 2000 Oct;1(4):232-7
AD - Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service d'Oncologie Medicale (SOMPS), Paris, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: The natural history of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is poorly documented. We attempted to identify factors predictive of progression and survival in HIV-infected patients with KS and CD4+ cell counts greater than 100/microL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied retrospectively 78 HIV-infected patients diagnosed as having KS between 1989 and 1995. The following variables were assessed as potential predictors of progression and death, in a Cox proportional hazards model: age, sex, ethnic group, transmission group, site of the first KS lesions, duration of KS, concomitant opportunistic infections or malignancies, antiretroviral drug therapy (excluding protease inhibitors), antiherpes treatments, neutrophil counts, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts, plasma HIV load, p24 antigenaemia, beta2-microglobulinaemia and immunoglobin A and G serum levels. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 22 months (3-81 months), KS progressed in 66 of the 78 patients. The median survival time after progression was 68 months (9-126 months). Multivariate analysis identified only visceral KS, a high neutrophil count and a high serum immunoglobulin (Ig) level as independent predictors of progression (P < 0.05). Previous and concomitant opportunistic diseases (P = 0.003) and low CD4+ cell counts (P = 0.013) were independently associated with shorter survival; in contrast KS therapy did not independently influence survival. CONCLUSION: Progression of KS is predicted by markers of KS severity, while overall survival is best predicted by markers of immunodeficiency (opportunistic diseases and the CD4+ cell count).
UI - 11687747
AU - Harsch IA; Kraetsch HG; Amann K; Hahn EG; Ficker JH; Konturek PC
TI - Disseminated manifestation of Kaposi's Sarcoma in newly diagnosed AIDS in an african female.
SO - Med Sci Monit 2001 Nov-Dec;7(6):1303-6
AD - Department of Medicine I, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcomas are the most frequent malignancies in patients with AIDS and there is increasing evidence of an association with human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). A reconstitution of the immune response due to different regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the most important step in treatment of Kaposi's sarcomas. Local treatment options include the topic application of alitretionin (9-cis-retinoic acid) as a gel, cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen and intralesional vinblastine, as well as local laser or low-dose X-ray treatment. A systemic chemotherapy can be taken under consideration in selected cases with clinical significant visceral lesions or aggressive sarcomatous behavior with anthracyclines, taxanes, as well as an immunomodulatory treatment with alpha Interferon. CASE REPORT: The case of an african emigrant is described. Hospitalized due to recurrent fever and diarrhea, the diagnosis of AIDS was quickly established. The physical examination revealed multiple nodular, painless skin lesions suspicious of Kaposi's sarcoma. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically, later on also in bronchial and duodenal biopsies due to the atypical subepithelial vessels with slit-like appearance and prominent endothelia. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous lesions in patients with dark skin colour may be unfamiliar to European physicians. In patients with HIV-infection, nodular skin lesions should lead suspicion to Kaposi's sarcoma. If this diagnosis is established, it should be clarified, if other locations (e.g.: intestine, respiratory tract) are involved, too.
UI - 11724831
AU - Tedeschi R; Enbom M; Bidoli E; Linde A; De Paoli P; Dillner J
TI - Viral load of human herpesvirus 8 in peripheral blood of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
SO - J Clin Microbiol 2001 Dec;39(12):4269-73
AD - The Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. email@example.com
Viral load is an important marker of activity of viral diseases for a number of viruses. We wished to evaluate whether the viral load of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in peripheral blood was a consistent feature of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients and whether the viral load correlated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA levels, CD4 counts, and/or the HHV-8 seroreactivity. Fifty-four consecutive plasma samples from 14 patients with KS were evaluated for HHV-8 viral load by quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were analyzed at the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and at different intervals during treatments. The median HHV-8 DNA load before HAART treatment was 8,998 (ranging from 170 to 40,100) copies/ml and 12,270 (ranging from 40 to 142,575) copies/ml during HAART. There were both increasing and decreasing trends. There was an association between HHV-8 DNA and HIV RNA viral loads (odds ratio [OR] = 5.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54 to 18.98) and between HHV-8 viral load and CD4 cell counts (OR = 7.24; 95% CI, 1.30 to 40.35). High HHV-8 viral load was also correlated with the titers of antibodies to the lytic HHV-8 antigen detected with immunofluorescence (P < 0.01), but not with antibodies to the latent HHV-8 antigen. In conclusion, we found that HHV-8 viremia in KS is associated with HIV viral load, CD4 cell counts, and lytic HHV-8 serological reactivity. HHV-8 viral load monitored by real time PCR might be useful for determination HHV-8 viral load during the follow-up of KS patients.
UI - 11698915
AU - Young AC; Mazzullo JM; Simon AR; Skolnik PR
TI - Case report: Kaposi's sarcoma: an unusual presentation.
SO - MedGenMed 2001 Sep 28;3(4):8
AD - Department of General Internal Medicine, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common tumor associated with HIV-1 infection, affecting 30% of HIV-infected homosexual men before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In the era of HAART, the incidence of KS has markedly declined. KS usually presents with cutaneous lesions, but it may involve other organs, most commonly the pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems. Isolated pulmonary KS without cutaneous involvement is rare, although intrathoracic KS is seen in up to 75% of patients with KS. We describe an unusual case of a patient with AIDS and isolated endobronchial KS despite a normal arterial pO2, normal pulmonary function tests, no cutaneous KS, and normal chest computed tomographic findings.
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