National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: February 1, 2002
UI - 11579679
AU - Tomita T
TI - Immunocytochemical localization of prohormone convertase 1/3 and 2 in gastrointestinal carcinoids.
SO - Endocr Pathol 2001 Summer;12(2):137-45
AD - Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.
Gastrointestinal carcinoids are derived from the diffuse intestinal endocrine system and may produce amines and many peptides, including serotonin, chromogranin A (CGA), and tachykinins. Most peptide hormones are synthesized as bigger prohormones, which are processed to smaller active hormones by prohormone convertases (PCs). A total of 35 cases of gastrointestinal carcinoids, including gastric, duodenal, small intestinal, appendiceal, and large intestinal carcinoids, were immunocytochemically stained for serotonin, CGA, and PC 1/3 and 2, in order to colocalize CGA and PCs in the carcinoids. All carcinoids were positive for CGA and PCs. Carcinoids that stained strongly for CGA were generally weakly stained for PCs and those weakly staining for CGA were more strongly stained for PCs in the majority of the small and large intestinal tumors. Gastrointestinal carcinoids were positive for CGA and PCs, and the presence of PCs may suggest that the conversion of peptide prohormones to smaller peptide hormones occurs in gastrointestinal carcinoids. PCs immunocytochemistry may be added as a new phenotypic characterization for gastrointestinal carcinoids.
UI - 11761822
AU - Murawa D; Nowakowski W; Murawa P
TI - [Cases of carcinoid tumor in stomach and retroperitoneal space]
SO - Pol Merkuriusz Lek 2001 Sep;11(63):252-3
AD - I Oddzial Chirurgii Onkologicznej Wielkopolskiego Centrum Onkologii w Poznaniu.
Authors present two cases of carcinoid localized in stomach and retroperitoneal space. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination, endoscopy, CT and histopathological evaluation. The case of gastric carcinoid was an early lesion (penetrated only mucose and submucose layer of gastric wall). In opposition, second patient had inoperable large tumor localized in retroperitoneal space with multiple metastases to the liver.
UI - 11786770
AU - Tichansky DS; Cagir B; Borrazzo E; Topham A; Palazzo J; Weaver EJ; Lange
TI - A; Fry RD Risk of second cancers in patients with colorectal carcinoids.
SO - Dis Colon Rectum 2002 Jan;45(1):91-7
AD - Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital and Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.
INTRODUCTION: It is often stated that patients with colorectal carcinoid tumors have an increased risk of developing other malignancies. However, this risk has not been conclusively documented. A comprehensive evaluation is needed to more thoroughly assess the risk of second cancers in patients with colorectal carcinoids. METHODS: A search of the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database from 1973 to 1996 revealed 2,086 patients with colorectal carcinoids. This subset of patients was examined for occurrence of second cancers. The observed incidence of cancer for each site was compared with the expected incidence based on the gender-adjusted and age-adjusted cancer rates in the remaining Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result file. A Poisson distribution probability was used to determine the significance of these comparisons. RESULTS: Patients with colorectal carcinoids had an increased rate of cancer in the colon and rectum (P < 0.001), small bowel (P < 0.001), esophagus/stomach (P = 0.02), lung/bronchus (P < 0.001), urinary tract (P = 0.005), and prostate (P < 0.001), when compared with a control population. Most of the gastrointestinal tract cancers were synchronous cancers, whereas lesions outside the gastrointestinal tract were most commonly metachronous tumors. CONCLUSIONS: A significantly increased risk of synchronous colorectal, small-bowel, gastric, and esophageal cancers and metachronous lung, prostate, and urinary tract neoplasms is clearly demonstrated. After the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoid tumors, patients should undergo appropriate screening and surveillance for cancer at these sites.
UI - 11835243
AU - Assadi M; Kubiak R; Kaiser G
TI - Appendiceal carcinoid tumors in children: does size matter?
SO - Med Pediatr Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):65-6
AD - Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Children's Hospital Berne-Inselspital, CH-3010 Berne, Switzerland.
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