National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: February 1, 2002
UI - 11464132
AU - Seseke F; Zoller G; Kunze E
TI - Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the male urethra in association with so-called nephrogenic metaplasia.
SO - Urol Int 2001;67(1):104-8
AD - Departments of Urology and Pathology, University of Gottingen, Germany. email@example.com
A clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra associated with so-called nephrogenic metaplasia occurring in a 57-year-old male patient is presented. Ten months following total urethrectomy, multiple pulmonary metastases had developed. The patient died 2.5 years after surgery. The possible histogenesis of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the lower urinary tract - reported to develop in the male urethra only in a very few cases - is reviewed briefly. We favor an origin from preexisting nephrogenic metaplasia as one of the possible histogenetic pathways. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
UI - 11490207
AU - Koga F; Nagamatsu H; Ishimaru H; Mizuo T; Yoshida K
TI - Risk factors for the development of bladder transitional cell carcinoma following surgery for transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.
SO - Urol Int 2001;67(2):135-41
AD - Department of Urology, Tokyo Rosai Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
To determine the risk factors for development of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder (BTCC) following surgery for TCC of the upper urinary tract (UUT-TCC) in patients without history of BTCC, 85 patients surgically treated for UUT-TCC (34 female, 51 male; median age 66, range 42-85 years) were reviewed retrospectively. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association of relevant clinicopathologic factors with BTCC-free survival in patients without a history of BTCC and TCC-specific survival in all. Median follow-up duration was 35 (range 1-193) months. Six patients (7%) had previous histories of BTCC, and 6 others (7%) had concurrent BTCC at the time of surgery for UUT-TCC. Of 70 patients who had no history of BTCC and underwent follow-up cystoscopy, 24 (34%) developed BTCC during follow-up after surgery. Univariate analysis identified female sex, postoperative systemic chemotherapy, and incomplete distal ureterectomy as significant risk factors for new development of BTCC. After multivariate analysis adjusted for age and pathological (p) T stage in the TNM classification, all three factors remained significant, with respective hazard ratios of 5.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.99-15.6; p = 0.001), 3.19 (95% CI, 1.34-7.62; p = 0.009) and 2.99 (95% CI, 1.08-8.26; p = 0.03). Only pT stage was a significant independent risk factor for TCC-specific death. Female sex and postoperative systemic chemotherapy, as well as incomplete distal ureterectomy, are possible riks factors for development of BTCC following surgery for UUT-TCC. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
UI - 11490218
AU - Er O; Coskun HS; Altinbas M; Akgun H; Cetin M; Eser B; Unal A
TI - Rapidly relapsing squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis associated with paraneoplastic syndromes of leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and hypercalcemia.
SO - Urol Int 2001;67(2):175-7
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey. email@example.com
A case history is reported here in which leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and hypercalcemia associated with rapidly relapsing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis were observed. In a 58-year-old man, SCC of the renal pelvis was documented during nephrolithotomy, and right nephrectomy was performed. Local relapse of the tumor occurred rapidly in 2 months' time and hypercalcemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis worsened in accordance with tumor volume. Cranial computerized tomography (CT), thorax CT and bone scintigraphy were negative for metastasis. The serum parathyroid hormone level was 28 pg/ml (normal 9- 55 pg/ml). To disclose leukocytosis and thrombocytosis, peripheral smear and bone marrow aspiration were performed and no pathologic finding regarding any hematologic disorder was found; the samples were also BCR-ABL negative and Philadelphia chromosome negative. Production of several factors by tumor cells may be responsible for this paraneoplastic syndrome. The association of SCC of the renal pelvis with this triple paraneoplastic syndrome is an extremely rare occurrence. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.
UI - 11796281
AU - Irie A; Iwamura M; Kadowaki K; Ohkawa A; Uchida T; Baba S
TI - Intravesical instillation of bacille Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ of the urothelium involving the upper urinary tract using vesicoureteral reflux created by a double-pigtail catheter.
SO - Urology 2002 Jan;59(1):53-7
AD - Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urothelium involving the upper urinary tract when the vaccine was administered by way of the bladder using vesicoureteral reflux created by a double-pigtail (DP) catheter. METHODS: Thirteen upper urinary tracts of 9 patients with cytologically diagnosed CIS, with concomitant bladder CIS in 4, were treated by intravesical BCG instillation. A DP catheter was placed retrogradely, and the appearance of vesicoureteral reflux was confirmed by cystography. BCG (1 to 2 mg/mL) in a volume sufficient to fill the renal caliceal system was administered into the bladder weekly for 6 weeks. The mean follow-up was 36 months (range 8 to 97). RESULTS: The voided urine cytology turned negative in all 9 patients at a mean of 86 days after the first administration of BCG. The voided urine cytology returned positive afterward in 3 patients, and positive cytology in the upper urinary tract was confirmed in 1 of 13 treated urinary tracts, which were successfully treated by another course of BCG therapy with the DP catheter. Minor adverse effects related to BCG and the DP catheter were seen in 5 patients. CONCLUSIONS: BCG therapy for the CIS involving the upper urinary tract using a DP catheter might have the potential to be an effective procedure preserving renal units and could be adopted not only as an imperative, but also as an elective, treatment option.
UI - 11821513
AU - Bazari H; Mauiyyedi S
TI - Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 4-2002. A 75-year-old man with acute renal failure five months after cystoprostatectomy and urethrectomy for carcinoma.
SO - N Engl J Med 2002 Jan 31;346(5):353-60
UI - 11828774
AU - Matsuoka Y; Ishizaka K; Kobayashi T; Machida T; Oka K
TI - [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter with inverted proliferation accompanied with papillary bladder tumor: a case report]
SO - Hinyokika Kiyo 2001 Dec;47(12):861-3
AD - Department of Urology, Kanto Central Hospital.
An 85-year-old female was referred to our hospital with chief complaints of right flank pain and gross hematuria. Ultrasonography demonstrated right hydroureteronephrosis and a thumb head-sized solid mass in the lower third of the right ureter. Cystoscopy revealed papillary tumors near the right ureteral orifice. Under the preoperative diagnosis of right ureteral tumor and bladder tumor, transurethral resection of bladder tumor, right nephroureterectomy and partial cystectomy were performed. The gross specimen of the ureter contained a 5 x 3 x 1 cm, polypoid and smooth-surfaced tumor. The pathological diagnosis of the ureteral tumor was transitional cell carcinoma with inverted proliferation, grade 1 >> grade 2. On the other hand, the bladder tumor was papillary transitional cell carcinoma, grade 1. This is a case in which tumor development showed two different types.
UI - 11842536
AU - Okutani T; Kobayashi K; Hayashi M
TI - [Experience of nephroureterectomy with modified "pluck" method--En bloc removal of kidney and ureter]
SO - Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi 2002 Jan;93(1):28-32
PURPOSE: Transurethral removal of the ureter in nephroureterectomy has been reported by several centers as being a useful procedure. We also have employed this procedure in selective cases, but we had several problems in this procedure. So we tried the modified pluck nephroureterectomy technique (En bloc removal of kidney and ureter) to or ureteral tumor, 2 with renal cell carcinoma and 3 with benign diseases. Standard nephrectomy is performed. After transurethral resection of the ureteral meatus, the distal ureter is freed by blind retroperitoneal dissection and plucked out of the bladder in continuity with the kidney. The bladder is drainaged for 6-10 days after surgery. RESULTS: The average time and blood loss during the operation were 247 minutes and 287 ml. No appreciable complications such as retroperitoneal urine leakage or hemorrhage during or after the procedure were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The modified pluck technique is useful because of its easiness and minimal invasiveness.
UI - 11832714
AU - Miyake H; Eto H; Arakawa S; Kamidono S; Hara I
TI - Over expression of CD44V8-10 in urinary exfoliated cells as an independent prognostic predictor in patients with urothelial cancer.
SO - J Urol 2002 Mar;167(3):1282-7
AD - Department of Urology, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
PURPOSE: CD44 is a widely expressed cell surface adhesion molecule, of which various isoforms arise from alternative RNA splicing mechanisms. Over expression of specific CD44 splice variants, namely CD44v8-10, is evident in various malignant tumors and is considered to be associated with disease progression. In this study, we investigated whether the transcriptional level of CD44v8-10 relative to that of the standard CD44 isoform would predict the extent and prognosis of urothelial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CD44v8-10- to -standard CD44 ratio was measured in the tissue (40 urothelial cancer specimens and corresponding normal urinary tissue) and spontaneously voided urine samples of 150 patients with urothelial cancer and 50 with benign urological disease by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using the set of primers capable of amplifying all CD44 splice variant isoforms. RESULTS: Initially any CD44 variant isoforms were barely detectable in normal urinary tissues, whereas CD44v8-10 was predominantly expressed in most urothelial cancer specimens. Furthermore, the CD44v8-10- to -standard CD44 ratio in urothelial cancer was closely associated with tumor progression. We then compared the ratio in urothelial cancer tissue and urinary exfoliated cells, and noted a linear and significant correlation of these 2 values in the same patients. Therefore, we investigated whether the CD44v8-10- to -standard CD44 ratio in urinary exfoliated cells would predict the prognosis and disease progression. The mean ratio in the urinary exfoliated cells of patients with invasive urothelial cancer was significantly higher than in those with superficial urothelial cancer. Of the patients with superficial bladder cancer disease-free survival rate of those with an elevated versus a normal ratio was significantly lower. Moreover, of the patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma who underwent complete resection disease-free survival of those with an elevated CD44v8-10- to -standard CD44 ratio was significantly lower than that of patients with a normal ratio. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that CD44v8-10 is strongly expressed in tumor tissue and evident at high levels in urinary exfoliated cells of patients with invasive versus superficial urothelial cancer. An elevated CD44v8-10- to -standard CD44 ratio in urinary exfoliated cells may serve as a novel prognostic predictor and indicator of disease extent in patients with urothelial cancer.
UI - 11832745
AU - Fukasawa M; Kobayashi H; Matsushita K; Araki I; Takeda M
TI - Intraperitoneal rupture of giant hydronephrosis due to ureteral cancer accompanied by renal cell carcinoma.
SO - J Urol 2002 Mar;167(3):1393-4
AD - Department of Urology, Shimoina Red Cross Hospital, Shimoina, Japan.
UI - 11832751
AU - Kurokawa S; Kojima Y; Tozawa K; Hayashi Y; Sasaki S; Kohri K
TI - Female paraurethral leiomyoma: immunohistochemical approach to the relationship between leiomyoma and ovarian hormones.
SO - J Urol 2002 Mar;167(3):1403-4
AD - Department of Urology, Nagoya City University Medical School, Nagoya, Japan.
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