National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: June 1, 2002
UI - 11437043
AU - Park DI; Rhee PL; Kim JE; Hyun JG; Kim YH; Son HJ; Kim JJ; Paik SW; Rhee
TI - JC; Choi KW; Oh YL Risk factors suggesting malignant transformation of gastric adenoma: univariate and multivariate analysis.
SO - Endoscopy 2001 Jun;33(6):501-6
AD - Division of Gastroenterology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Since gastric adenomas are precancerous lesions, polypectomy is necessary. However, there have been no reports suggesting factors capable of predicting malignant transformation of gastric adenomas removed by endoscopic snare polypectomy (ESP) or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in Korea, a country in which gastric cancer is a major problem. The aim of this paper was to elucidate the risk factors suggesting malignant transformation of gastric adenomas removed by ESP or EMR at our center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between of endoscopy and histological examinations of the forceps biopsy specimens obtained were treated by ESP or EMR at our department. Factors capable of predicting malignancy were searched for in the endoscopy reports, still photographs, and histopathological findings. RESULTS: Eight of the 118 adenomas ultimately proved to have malignant foci. In the univariate analysis, four of the variables studied--location, histological type, surface redness, and degree of dysplasia--had a statistically significant relationship with malignant transformation. In the multivariate analysis, only the degree of dysplasia had a statistically significant relationship with malignant transformation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia in forceps biopsy material should be considered an absolute indication for ESP or EMR.
UI - 11437044
AU - Oda; Kondo H; Yamao T; Saito D; Ono H; Gotoda T; Yamaguchi H; Yoshida S;
TI - Shimoda T Metastatic tumors to the stomach: analysis of 54 patients diagnosed at endoscopy and 347 autopsy cases.
SO - Endoscopy 2001 Jun;33(6):507-10
AD - Dept of Endoscopy and Gastrointestinal Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: There have been several published reports on metastatic lesions in the stomach, but the numbers of cases have been limited due to the low frequency of the condition. The present study examined the clinicopathological features of metastatic tumors in the stomach from distant sites in a large series of cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 389 patients with gastric metastases from solid malignant tumors were examined between 1968 and 1998 at our institution. Of these, 347 were identified from a series of 6380 autopsy cases; 54 patients were diagnosed endoscopically while alive, 12 of whom had confirmation of the condition at autopsy. RESULTS: In the endoscopically diagnosed cases, the metastases presented as solitary (65%) or multiple lesions (35 %), and were more frequently located in the middle or upper third of the stomach. Although the endoscopic appearance often resembled that of submucosal tumor (51%) or primary gastric cancer (39%), the final diagnosis was easily obtained in over 90% of cases from endoscopic biopsies. In two cases of lung cancer and breast cancer, gastric metastases were found before the primary tumors. In the autopsy cases with solid malignancies, metastatic lesions to the stomach were found in 5.4%, and the lung, breast, and esophagus were common primary sites. Malignant melanoma was the most frequent tumor to metastasize to the stomach (29.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Since metastatic lesions to the stomach are rare, the above characteristics of the lesions should be borne in mind, and biopsies should be taken for precise diagnosis during endoscopic examinations.
UI - 11923136
AU - Ikeda M; Furukawa H; Imamura H; Shimizu J; Ishida H; Masutani S; Tatsuta
TI - M; Satomi T Poor prognosis associated with thrombocytosis in patients with gastric cancer.
SO - Ann Surg Oncol 2002 Apr;9(3):287-91
AD - Department of Surgery, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai, Japan. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytosis is commonly associated with malignant disease and has recently been suggested to be a poor prognostic indicator in patients with lung cancer and gynecological cancers. The prevalence of thrombocytosis in patients with gastric cancer was reviewed, and its association with poor prognosis was investigated. METHODS: Platelet count (PLT) and hemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were reviewed in 369 consecutive patients with histologically verified gastric cancer from 1994 to 2000. Differences between categories were analyzed with analysis of variance, and survival was compared by using the log-rank test on the Kaplan-Meier life table. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate whether thrombocytosis is an independent prognostic marker. RESULTS: Thrombocytosis was found in 42 patients, and anemia was found in 200 patients. PLT was negatively correlated with Hb. Mean PLT was significantly increased in patients with noncurative operations. There was a positive correlation between the depth of tumor invasion and PLT. One- and 3-year survival expectancies in patients with or without thrombocytosis were 52.4% and 23.4% and 85.7% and 72.9%, respectively. PLT was identified as an independent prognostic factor after lymph node metastasis and depth of tumor invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombocytosis is an independent prognostic indicator of survival in patients with gastric cancer.
UI - 12018818
AU - Liu J; Hu JL; Zhang XY; Qiao TD; Chen XT; Wu KC; Ding J; Fan DM
TI - The value of MG7 antigen in predicting cancerous change in dysplastic gastric mucosa.
SO - Int J Clin Pract 2002 Apr;56(3):169-72
AD - Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether MG7Ag is a useful predictor of evolution of gastric dysplasia to carcinoma. A total of 1090 patients with confirmed dysplasia were stained immunohistochemically with MG7 monoclonal antibody by the ABC method. A prospective follow-up study was undertaken on 19 patients with MG7Ag positive staining and 16 with MG7 negative staining over a period of 10-78 months. The expression of MG7Ag was also compared in another two groups by conducting retrospective studies. One group showed an evolution into gastric cancer over 2-4 years, the other did not. Quantitative analysis of MG7Ag expression was carried out on the last two groups. The receiver operating characteristic curve and Youden index were used to assess the best critical value for MG7Ag. MG7Ag was found positive in 456/1090 cases (41.8%) with dysplasia. Prospective follow-up of 35 patients showed that 6/19 patients with MG7Ag positive staining developed gastric cancer, but there were no carcinomatous changes in 16 patients with MG7 negative staining. The results of MG7Ag expression in 72 cases with retrospective follow-up showed there were 24 with positive immunostaining among 34 cancerous cases (70.6%), and only 7 in 38 non-cancerous cases (18.4%) (p<0.01). Image analysis showed that an average MG7Ag density index ++0.19 could be regarded as the critical value for high risk of gastric mucosa with dysplasia evolving to cancer. Positive MG7Ag expression in gastric mucosa of patients with dysplasia, especially in cases with a density index ++0.19, was an indicator of high risk of malignant change.
UI - 11437039
AU - Mortensen MB; Pless T; Durup J; Ainsworth AP; Plagborg GJ; Hovendal C
TI - Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. A prospective study.
SO - Endoscopy 2001 Jun;33(6):478-83
AD - Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Several studies have evaluated the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but so far no studies have specifically evaluated the clinical impact of EUS-FNAB in upper gastrointestinal tract cancer patients. In this consecutive and prospective study, EUS-FNAB was only performed if a positive malignant finding would change the therapeutic strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1997 and 1999, 307 consecutive patients were referred for EUS with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of esophageal, gastric or pancreatic cancer; 274 patients were potential candidates for surgical treatment and had EUS. According to predefined impact criteria, 27% (75/274) of the patients had EUS-FNAB for staging or diagnostic reasons. RESULTS: The overall clinical impact of EUS-FNAB was 13%, 14%, and 30% in esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer, respectively. The staging-related clinical impact was similar for all three types of cancer (11-12.5%), whereas the diagnosis-related impact was highest in pancreatic cancer patients (86%). EUS-FNAB was inadequate in 13% and gave false-negative results in 5%. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for EUS-FNAB were 80%, 78% and 80%, respectively. No complications related to the biopsy procedure were seen. CONCLUSIONS: If EUS-FNAB was performed only in cases where a positive malignant result would change patient management, then approximately one out of four patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer would require a biopsy. With this approach the actual clinical impact of EUS-FNAB ranged from 13% in esophageal cancer to 30% in pancreatic cancer. EUS-FNAB plays a limited, but very important clinical role in the assessment of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.
UI - 11819799
AU - Xu AG; Li SG; Liu JH; Gan AH
TI - Function of apoptosis and expression of the proteins Bcl-2, p53 and C-myc in the development of gastric cancer.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2001 Jun;7(3):403-6
AD - Research Laboratory of Digestive Disease, Huizhou Central People's Hospital, No.41 Elingbei Road, Huizhou 516001, Guangdong Province, China.
UI - 11819849
AU - Su M; Lu SM; Tian DP; Zhao H; Li XY; Li DR; Zheng ZC
TI - Relationship between ABO blood groups and carcinoma of esophagus and cardia in Chaoshan inhabitants of China.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2001 Oct;7(5):657-61
AD - Department of Pathology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515031,China. email@example.com
AIM:To study the relationship between ABO blood groups and carcinoma of esophagus and cardia in Chaoshan inhabitants of China, which is a unique Littoral high-risk area of esophageal carcinoma in China. The poor communication and transportation in the past has made Chaoshan a relatively closed area and kept its culture and custure of old China thousand years ago. METHODS: Data on age, sex, ABO blood type and X-ray or pathological diagnose of the patients with carcinoma of esophagus or cardia were collected from the Tumor Hospital. First Affiliated Hospital, Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College; and the Central Hospital of Shantou and the Central Hospital of Jieyang. A total of 6685 patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC) and 2955 patients with cardiac cancer (CC) in Chaoshan district were retrospectively assessed for their association with ABO blood groups. RESULTS: The distribution of ABO blood groups in patients with EC or CC was similar to the normal local population in Chaoshan. However, blood group B in male patients with CC and in the patients with carcinoma in the upper third esophagus was 2.3% and 4.7% higher than the corresponding controls. The relative risk B O was 1.1415 (P<0.05) and 1.2696 (P<0.05), respectively. No relationship was found between ABO blood groups and tumor differentiation. CONCLUSION: ABO blood group B is associated with the incidence of CC in male individuals and carcinoma in the upper third esophagus. The distribution of ABO blood groups varies in the different geographical and ethnic groups. As a result, proper controls are very important for such studies.
UI - 11819818
AU - Cai L; Yu SZ; Zhang ZF
TI - Glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 genotypes and the risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2001 Aug;7(4):506-9
AD - Department of Epidemiology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004, Fujian Province, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the detoxification of many potential carcinogens and appear to play a critical role in the protection from the effects of carcinogens. The contribution of glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 genotypes to susceptibility to the risk of gastric cancer and their interaction with cigarette smoking are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between genetic polymorphisms of GSTT1 and GSTT1 and gastric cancer. METHODS: A population based case-control study was carried out in a high-risk area, Changle County, Fujian Province, China. The epidemiological data were collected by a standard questionnaire and blood samples were obtained from 95 incidence gastric cancer cases and 94 healthy controls. A polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence or absence of the GSTT1 and GSTT1 genes in genomic DNA. Logistic regression model was employed in the data analysis. RESULTS: An increase in risk for gastric cancer was found among carriers of GSTT1 null genotype. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 2.63 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.17-5.88, after controlling for age, gender, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and fish sauce intake. The frequency of GSTT1 null genotype in cancer cases (43.16%) was not significantly different from that in controls (50.00%). However, the risk for gastric cancer in those with GSTT1 null and GSTT1 non-null genotype was significantly higher than in those with both GSTT1 and GSTT1 non-null genotype (OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.15-6.77). Compared with those subjects who never smoked and had normal GSTT1 genotype, ORs were 1.60 (95% CI:0.62-4.19) for never smokers with GSTT1 null type, 2.33 (95% CI 0.88-6.28) for smokers with normal GSTT1, and 8.06 (95% CI 2.83-23.67) for smokers with GSTT1 null type. CONCLUSIONS: GSTT1 gene polymorphisms may be associated with genetic susceptibility of stomach cancer and may modulate tobacco-related carcinogenesis of gastric cancer.
UI - 11819820
AU - He XS; Su Q; Chen ZC; He XT; Long ZF; Ling H; Zhang LR
TI - Expression, deletion [was deleton] and mutation of p16 gene in human gastric cancer.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2001 Aug;7(4):515-21
AD - The Oncology Institute of Center South University, Changsha 410078, Hunan Province, China. email@example.com
AIM: To investigate the relationship between the expression of p16 gene and the gastric carcinogenesis, depth of invasion and lymph node metastases, and to evaluate the deletion and mutation of exon 2 in p16 gene in gastric carcinoma. METHODS: The expression of p16 protein was examined by streptavidin-peroxidase conjugated method (S-P);the deletion and mutation of p16 gene were respectively examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (PCR-SSCP) in gastric carcinoma. RESULTS: Expression of p16 protein was detected in 96.25% (77/80) of the normal gastric mucosa, in 92.00% (45/50) of the dysplastic gastric mucosa and in 47.54% (58/122) of the gastric carcinoma. The positive rate of p16 protein expression in gastric carcinoma was significantly lower than that in normal gastric mucosa and dysplastic gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). The positive rate of p16 protein expression in mucoid carcinoma 10.00% (1/10) was significantly lower than that in poorly differentiated carcinoma 51.22% (21/41), undifferentiated carcinoma 57.69% (15/26) and signet ring cell carcinoma 62.50% (10/16) (P < 0.05). The positive rate of p16 protein in 30 cases paired primary and lymph node metastatic gastric carcinoma: There was 46.67% (14/30) in primary gastric carcinoma, 16.67% (5/30) in lymph node metastatic gastric carcinoma. The positive rate of lymph node metastatic carcinoma was significantly lower than that of primary carcinoma (P < 0.05). There was of p16 gene mutation in exon 2, but 5 cases displayed deletion of p16 gene in exon 2 in the 25 primary gastric carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: The expression loss of p16 protein related to the gastric carcinogenesis, gastric carcinoma histopathological subtypes and lymph metastasis. The mutation of p16 gene in exon 2 may not be involved in gastric carcinogenesis. But the deletion of p16 gene in exon 2 may be involved in gastric carcinogenesis.
UI - 11819821
AU - Fang DC; Yang SM; Zhou XD; Wang DX; Luo YH
TI - Telomere erosion is independent of microsatellite instability but related to loss of heterozygosity in gastric cancer.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2001 Aug;7(4):522-6
AD - Southwest Hospital Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038,China. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM: To correlate the length of the telomere to microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC, MCC and DCC genes in gastric carcinomas. METHODS: Telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length of gastric cancer was measured with Southern blot. LOH of APC, MCC and DCC genes, microsatellite instability (MSI) and frameshift mutation of hMSH6, TGF-betaRII and BAX genes were analyzed by PCR-based methods. RESULTS: Sixty-eight cases of sporadic gastric carcinoma were studied for MSI using five microsatellite markers. MSI in at least one locus was detected in 17 (25%) of 68 tumors analyzed. Frameshift mutations of hMSH6, TGF-betaRII and BAX were detected in 2,6 and 3 of gastric carcinomas respectively showing high MSI (> or = 2 loci, n = 8), but none was found in those showing low MSI (only one locus, n = 9) or MSS (tumor lacking MSI or stable, n = 51). Thirty-five cases, including all high MSI and low MSI, were studied for TRF. The mean TRF length was not correlated with clinicopathological parameters. No association was observed between TRF length and MSI or frameshift mutation. On the contrary, LOH at the DCC locus was related to telomere shortening (P<0.01). This tendency was also observed in APC and MCC genes, although there was no statistical significance. CONCLUSION: The development of gastric cancer can arise through two different genetic pathways. In high MSI gastric cancers, defective mismatch repair allows mutations to accumulate and generate the high MSI phenotype. In gastric cancers showing either low MSI or MSS, multiple deletions may represent the LOH pathway. Telomere erosion is independent of high MSI phenotype but related to the LOH pathway in gastric cancer.
UI - 11714439
AU - Takezaki T; Gao CM; Wu JZ; Ding JH; Liu YT; Zhang Y; Li SP; Su P; Liu
TI - TK; Tajima K Dietary protective and risk factors for esophageal and stomach cancers in a low-epidemic area for stomach cancer in Jiangsu Province, China: comparison with those in a high-epidemic area.
SO - Jpn J Cancer Res 2001 Nov;92(11):1157-65
AD - Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8681. email@example.com
Comparative epidemiological studies with ecological and case-control approaches in high- and low-epidemic areas of China have provided us with much evidence with regard to risk and benefit in the environment. To clarify how dietary factors are involved in esophageal and stomach cancer development, we performed a case-control study in a low-epidemic area, and compared the findings with those obtained earlier for a high-epidemic area for stomach cancer in the same Jiangsu Province, China. We recruited 199 and 187 cases with esophageal and stomach cancers, respectively, and 333 population-based common controls. Odds ratios (ORs) for esophageal and stomach cancers were calculated with adjustment for potential confounding factors, using an unconditional logistic model. Current and former smoking elevated the OR for esophageal cancer, along with high intake of pickled vegetables and broiled meat, while decreased ORs were observed for frequently consumed raw vegetables and garlic. With regard to stomach cancer, ORs were increased with frequent consumption of salty fish, leftover gruel, and broiled meat, and lowered by snap bean consumption. The present risk factors were common to the previously obtained results in the high-epidemic area, and similarly distributed in each general population. While more protective factors were observed in the high-epidemic area, their penetrance was much greater in the low-epidemic area. The present study thus suggests that frequent vegetable and garlic consumption contributes to low mortality rates for esophageal and stomach cancers in a low-epidemic area, counteracting similar exposure levels for risk factors as in the high-epidemic area.
UI - 11676259
AU - Aksel' EM; Davydov MI; Ushakova TI
TI - [Statistics of lung, stomach and esophageal cancer: status of oncological care, morbidity and mortality]
SO - Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk 2001;(9):61-5
Lung cancer is the most common pattern of malignant neoplasms in males, gastric cancer ranks next. In the female pattern of cancer morbidity, gastric cancer is third in the incidence of tumors, pulmonary cancer occupies the 9th place. Esophageal cancer accounts for 3%. In the mortality pattern, lung cancer holds the lead in males and ranks 4th in females, gastric cancer is second in both sexes, esophageal cancer occupies the 7th place in males. In 1999 the standardized incidence rates of cancer of the lung were 64.8 and 6.8 in males and females, respectively. Those of the stomach and esophagus were 33.6 and 7.2 in males and 6.8 and 1.2 in females, respectively. There were tendencies for decreases in the morbidity and mortality of cancer at these sites in 1990 to 1999. The morphological verification of diagnosis of lung cancer does not reached 50%, this is higher for cancer of the stomach (71.6%) and esophagus (67.7%). There has been an increase in the proportion of patients with Stage IV disease in all tumor forms in question. The basic treatment for cancer of the stomach and lung was surgical (82.2 and 38.6%, respectively) and that for esophageal cancer is radiation (47.6%). As little as 10% of patients with gastric and lung cancer survive over 5 years. In esophageal cancer, this figure is much less (5%).
UI - 12014714
AU - Miwa H; Go MF; Sato N
TI - H. pylori and gastric cancer: the Asian enigma.
SO - Am J Gastroenterol 2002 May;97(5):1106-12
AD - Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
The actual distribution of Helicobacter pylori infection and its related diseases in various Asian countries is controversial. Only limited information is available regarding this issue. We discuss the etiological role of H. pylori in gastric cancer through the Asian experience. Seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in asymptomatic subjects and the annual incidence rate of gastric cancer per 100,000 in various Asian countries are summarized from literature reviews and World Health Organization statistics, respectively. There is a large intercountry variation in incidence of gastric cancer and H. pylori seroprevalence among Asian countries. There is a strong link between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer in many countries, such as Japan. By contrast, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is high in some countries, including India and Bangladesh, but low gastric cancer rates have been reported. These disparate observations represent the Asian enigma. Factors that may influence the etiology of gastric cancer include the genetic diversity of the infecting H. pylori strains and differences in the host genetic background in various ethnic groups, including gastric acid secretion and genetic polymorphisms in proinflammatory cytokines. These factors, in addition to environmental factors, such as personal hygiene and dietary habits, reflect the multifactorial etiology of gastric cancer.
UI - 11958557
AU - Lopez-Abente G; Sanz-Anquela JM; Gonzalez CA
TI - Consumption of wine stored in leather wine bottles and incidence of gastric cancer.
SO - Arch Environ Health 2001 Nov-Dec;56(6):559-61
AD - Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
The authors conducted a survey among participants of a large-scale case-control study to evaluate a possible association between consumption of wine in leather bottles and incidence of gastric cancer. There were 59 cases and 53 controls in the study. The results suggest that some of the components of the complex mixture (i.e., tar) used in the proofing of leather wine bottles might dissolve in the wine and participate in the etiology of gastric cancer. Nevertheless, the results should be confirmed in an independent study.
UI - 11854903
AU - Cai L; Yu SZ; Zhan ZF
TI - Cytochrome P450 2E1 genetic polymorphism and gastric cancer in Changle, Fujian Province.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2001 Dec;7(6):792-5
AD - Department of Epidemiology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004, Fujian Province, China. email@example.com
AIM: Genetic polymorphism in enzymes of carcinogen metabolism has been found to have the influence on the susceptibility to cancer. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is considered to play an important role in the metabolic activation of procarcinogens such as N-nitrosoamines and low molecular weight organic compounds. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CYP450 2E1 polymorphisms are associated with risks of gastric cancer. METHODS: We conducted a population based case-control study in Changle county, Fujian Province, a high-risk region of gastric cancer in China. Ninety-one incident gastric cancer patients and ninety-four healthy controls were included in our study. Datas including demographic characteristics, diet intake, and alcohol and tobacco consumption of individuals in our study were completed by a standardized questionnaire.PCR-RFLP revealed three genotypes:heterozygote (C1/C2) and two homozygotes (C1/C1 and C2/C2) in CYP2E1. RESULTS: The frequency of variant genotypes (C1/C2 and C2/C2) in gastric cancer cases and controls was 36.3% and 24.5%, respectively. The rare homozygous C2/C2 genotype was found in 6 individuals in gastric cancer group(6.6%), whereas there was only one in the control group (1.1%). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (two-tailed Fisher's exact test P=0.066). Individuals in gastric cancer group were more likely to carry genotype C1/C2 (odds ratio, OR=1.50) and C2/C2 (OR=7.34) than individuals in control group (chi(2) =4.597, for trend P=0.032). The frequencies of genotypes with the C2 allele (C1/C2 and C2/C2 genotypes) were compared with those of genotypes without C2 allele (C1/C1 genotype) among individuals in gastric cancer group and control group according to the pattern of gastric cancer risk factors. The results show that individuals who exposed to these gastric cancer risk factors and carry the C2 allele seemed to have a higher risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Polymorphism of CYP2E1 gene may have some effect in the development of gastric cancer in Changle county, Fujian Province.
UI - 11854904
AU - Wu YL; Sun B; Zhang XJ; Wang SN; He HY; Qiao MM; Zhong J; Xu JY
TI - Growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of Sulindac on Human gastric cancer cells.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2001 Dec;7(6):796-800
AD - Department of Gastroenterology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai 200025, China. Sunborjxh@yahoo.com.cn
AIM: To evaluate the effects of sulindac in inducing growth inhibition and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells in comparison with human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS: The human gastric cancer cell lines MKN45 and MKN28 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG(2) and SMMC7721 were used for the study. Anti-proliferative effect was measured by MTT assay, and apoptosis was determined by Hoechst-33258 staining, electronography and DNA fragmentation. The protein of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Bcl-2 were detected by Western dot blotting. RESULTS: Sulindac could initiate growth inhibition and apoptosis of MKN45, MKN28, HepG(2) and SMMC7721 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Growth inhibitory activity and apoptosis were more sensitive in HepG(2) cells than in SMMC7721 cells, MKN45 and MKN28 cells. After 24 hours incubation with sulindac at 2mmol x L(-1) and 4mmol x L(-1), the level of COX-2 and Bcl-2 protein were lowered in MKN45, SMMC7721 and HepG(2) cells but not in MKN28 cells. CONCLUSION: Sulindac could inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells and HCC cells effectively in vitro by apoptosis induction, which was associated with regression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 expression. The growth inhibition and apoptosis of HCC cells were greater than that of human gastric cancer cells. The different effects of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells may be related to the differentiation of the cells.
UI - 11854905
AU - Xue FB; Xu YY; Wan Y; Pan BR; Ren J; Fan DM
TI - Association of H. pylori infection with gastric carcinoma: a Meta analysis.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2001 Dec;7(6):801-4
AD - Department of Health Statistics, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM: To follow the principles of evidence based medicine to reach the integrated results of these studies. METHODS: Twenty-one papers of case-control studies were selected, including 11 on gastric cancer,7 on precancerous lesion of stomach and 3 on lymphoma of stomach. Meta analysis was used to sum up the odds ratios (OR) of these studies. RESULTS: H. pylori vs gastric cancer (intestinal and diffuse type): the odds ratio from the fixed effect model is 3.0016 (95% CI: 2.4197-3.7234, P<0.001). H. pylori vs precancerous lesion of stomach: a random effect model was used to calculate the summary odds ratio and its value is 2.5635 (95% CI: 1.8477-3.5566, P<0.01). H. pylori vs lymphoma of stomach: though the quantity of literature is too small to make Meta analysis, the data of these 3 studies show that lymphoma of stomach is highly associated with H. pylori infections. CONCLUSION: Since it had been revealed that H. pylori infection pre-exists in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions, the results of Meta analysis present a strong evidence to support the conclusion that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for gastric carcinoma.
UI - 11911252
AU - Vissers KJ; Riegman PH; Alers JC; Tilanus HW; van Dekken H
TI - Involvement of cancer-activating genes on chromosomes 7 and 8 in esophageal (Barrett's) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.
SO - Anticancer Res 2001 Nov-Dec;21(6A):3813-20
AD - Department of Pathology, Josephine Nefkens Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
The incidence of adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus (Barrett's esophagus) and proximal stomach (gastric cardia) has increased rapidly over the past decades. In contrast to this dramatic increase, genetic knowledge is sparse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated genomic amplification on chromosomes 7 and 8 by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and protein expression of relevant oncogenes (EGFR, HGF, MET, CTSB, MYC) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 22 esophageal and 22 gastric cardia carcinomas. RESULTS: The CGH and IHC patterns were very similar for the two cancer locations. IHC showed positive immunostaining in 93% of the adenocarcinomas for at least one of the investigated genes, whereas CGH disclosed genomic gains on chromosome 7 and/or 8 in 80%. CONCLUSION: Cancer-activating genes on chromosomes 7 and 8 are frequently involved in gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinomas. Moreover, the similarities in chromosomal changes and protein expression patterns strongly suggest that esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas have a shared etiology. This is in agreement with studies addressing gastroesophageal reflux disease and intestinal metaplasia at these locations.
UI - 11997565
AU - Park MS; Yu JS; Kim MJ; Yoon SW; Kim SH; Noh TW; Lee KH; Lee JT; Yoo HS;
TI - Kim KW Mucinous versus nonmucinous gastric carcinoma: differentiation with helical CT.
SO - Radiology 2002 May;223(2):540-6
AD - Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei Univ College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
PURPOSE: To assess the capability of helical computed tomography (CT) to assist in the differentiation between mucinous and nonmucinous gastric carcinomas, with a focus on the thickened stomach wall itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 62 patients with pathologically proved mucinous (n = 21) or nonmucinous (n = 41) gastric carcinomas, contrast material-enhanced helical CT images were obtained. The gross appearance, contrast enhancement pattern, predominant thickened layer, and degree of enhancement were retrospectively evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed with Fisher exact, chi(2), and Student t tests. A P value of less than.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. RESULTS: The most common type of gross appearance in both carcinomas was fungating: It occurred in 71% of patients with mucinous carcinomas and in 59% of patients with nonmucinous carcinomas. The next most common gross appearance type was ulcerative (24% of patients) in nonmucinous carcinomas and diffusely infiltrative (29% of patients) in mucinous carcinomas (P =.009). The most common contrast enhancement pattern was homogeneous (61% of patients) in nonmucinous carcinomas and layered (62% of patients) in mucinous carcinomas (P =.001). These findings were significantly different. The predominantly affected thickened layer was the high-attenuating inner layer or the entire layer (88% of patients) in nonmucinous carcinomas and the low-attenuating middle or outer layer (57% of patients) in mucinous carcinomas. Only two mucinous tumors showed miliary punctate calcifications in infiltrative lesions. CONCLUSION: Helical CT may assist in distinguishing mucinous from nonmucinous gastric carcinoma, primarily on the basis of enhancement pattern, predominant layer of the thickened wall, gross appearance, and presence of calcifications. Copyright RSNA, 2002
UI - 12018903
AU - Ito M; Haruma K; Kaya S; Kai H; Masuda H; Ohta M; Sumii M; Tanaka S;
TI - Yoshihara M; Chayama K Implication of anti-parietal cell antibody levels in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric carcinogenesis.
SO - Dig Dis Sci 2002 May;47(5):1080-5
AD - First Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Japan.
We investigated serum levels of anti-parietal cell antibody (APCA) in relation to various gastric diseases. Subjects were 224 Japanese patients including 58 with gastric cancer. All patients underwent gastroscopy, and APCA was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Unexpectedly, there was no difference in APCA levels between patients with gastric cancer and those with gastritis. Among H. pylori-positive patients, APCA levels were closely correlated with grades of atrophy when no gastric cancer was present, but no correlation was found when gastric cancer was present. APCA-negative gastric cancer was found mainly in males and was characterized by massive infiltration of neutrophils in the background mucosa. The 24 patients with gastric cancer were APCA-negative and showed low pepsinogen levels. The odds ratio for the incidence of gastric cancer in these patients was 7.90 (95% CI 3.4-18.4). This suggests APCA-negative gastric cancer is the predominant form of gastric cancer in Japan.
UI - 11979413
AU - Terry MB; Gaudet MM; Gammon MD
TI - The epidemiology of gastric cancer.
SO - Semin Radiat Oncol 2002 Apr;12(2):111-27
AD - Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, New York, NY 10032, USA.
The epidemiology of gastric cancer is remarkable for both its dramatic decline in incidence over the past century and its continuing presence as the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide despite this decline. Factors including increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and decreased intake of salty foods have largely been credited for the decline. Epidemiologic studies continue to provide data on other gastric cancer risk factors, including associations with Helicobacter pylori infection, as well as dietary factors, tobacco, and alcohol intake. In response to the opposing trends of decreasing distal gastric cancer and increasing gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, studies are beginning to identify gastric cancer risk factors separately by tumor subsite. Future epidemiologic studies that include information on site of origin as well as molecular markers promise to yield more homogeneous classification of case groups, which will enhance identification of underlying disease processes. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
UI - 11979414
AU - El-Rifai W; Powell SM
TI - Molecular biology of gastric cancer.
SO - Semin Radiat Oncol 2002 Apr;12(2):128-40
AD - Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology/Hepatology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world. Gastric adenocarcinomas account for more than 95% of gastric tumors, whereas gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common neoplasms of the rare gastric mesenchymal tumors. Although the incidence of mid-distal gastric adenocarcinomas is decreasing, the incidence of gastroesophageal junctional tumors and Barrett's adenocarcinomas is increasing for unknown reasons. The majority of gastric tumors are sporadic in nature. However, there are rare, inherited gastric cancer predisposition traits, such as germline p53 (Li-Fraumeni syndrome) as well as E-cadherin (CDH1) alterations in familial diffuse gastric cancers. Gastric cancer has been observed to be part of the spectrum of neoplasms associated with germline mismatch repair gene (MMR) alterations that give rise to the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) entity. Comparative genomic hybridization analyses have identified several amplifications and losses of DNA copy numbers in gastric cancers. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies have shown several chromosomal loci with significant allelic loss, thus indicating the possibility of harboring a tumor suppressor gene important in gastric tumorigenesis. Microsatellite instability (MIS) and associated alteration of the TGF-bIIR, IGFRII, BAX, E2F-4, hMSH3, and hMSH6 genes are found in a subset of gastric carcinomas. Cell adhesion molecule abnormalities such as those involving CDH1 may play an important role in diffuse-type gastric cancer development. Although, multiple somatic alterations have been described in gastric carcinomas at the molecular level, the significance of these changes in gastric tumorigenesis remains to be established in most instances. The critical molecular alterations in gastric cancers that may lead to advances in our armamentarium to combat this lethal disease remain to be fully characterized. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
UI - 11979415
AU - Hundahl SA
TI - Staging, stage migration, and patterns of spread in gastric cancer.
SO - Semin Radiat Oncol 2002 Apr;12(2):141-9
AD - Queen's Cancer Institute, and the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. email@example.com
Background concerning tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging of gastric cancer is presented, with special attention to the issue of stage migration. Patterns of spread are also reviewed and current problems in local-regional control are emphasized. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
UI - 11979416
AU - Gunderson LL
TI - Gastric cancer--patterns of relapse after surgical resection.
SO - Semin Radiat Oncol 2002 Apr;12(2):150-61
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
A knowledge of patterns of relapse after initial treatment with surgery alone is essential to determining the relative importance of both local (irradiation) and systemic adjuvants (chemotherapy, other) to surgery. A presentation of anatomic factors and pathways of tumor spread provides a basis for understanding the subsequent patterns of relapse data found in clinical, autopsy, and reoperative series. Implications for adjuvant therapy are summarized. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
UI - 11895550
AU - Lee TB; Min YD; Lim SC; Kim KJ; Jeon HJ; Choi SM; Choi CH
TI - Fas (Apo-1/CD95) and Fas ligand interaction between gastric cancer cells and immune cells.
SO - J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002 Jan;17(1):32-8
AD - Department of Pharmacology, Chosun University Medical School, Gwangju, South Korea.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been proposed that the expression of Fas ligand (Fas L) in tumors may play an important role in immune escape. This study was undertaken to test a 'counterattack' theory as a mechanism of immune escape in gastric carcinoma. METHODS: Expression of Fas and Fas L was examined in the human gastric cancer cell lines using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Apoptosis of target Jurkat cells was examined after coculture with the effector gastric cancer cells in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the detection of Fas and FasL in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and gastric cancer cells in vivo. Apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Fas and FasL mRNA were found to be differentially expressed in gastric cancer cell lines. The coculture experiment showed that apoptosis of Jurkat was induced by a FasL-overexpressing effector gastric cell SNU-484. In a Fas-expressing gastric cell SNU-638, Fas expression was upregulated by the treatment of gamma-interferon in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. SNU-638 treated with gamma-interferon was more sensitive to anti-Fas antibody-mediated cytotoxicity than was the control cell line, suggesting an increase of functional Fas in gastric cancer cells. The expression of FasL in gastric cancer cells and of Fas in apoptotic TIL was also detected in vivo. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that the FasL expression of gastric cancer cells supports a 'counterattack theory' in gastric cancer cells and that the upregulation of Fas by IFN-gamma in SNU-638 may accelerate the apoptosis pathway through the Fas and FasL interaction between gastric cancer cells and immune cells. This result is supported by the expression of FasL in gastric cancer cells and apoptotic TIL in vivo. It is implicated that the different biological behaviors of gastric cancer cells could be at least in part explained by Fas and FasL interaction with immune cells.
UI - 11992556
AU - Takezaki T; Gao CM; Wu JZ; Li ZY; Wang JD; Ding JH; Liu YT; Hu X; Xu TL;
TI - Tajima K; Sugimura H hOGG1 Ser(326)Cys polymorphism and modification by environmental factors of stomach cancer risk in Chinese.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Jun 1;99(4):624-7
AD - Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Oxidative stress is involved in many types of DNA damage, e.g., resulting in 8-hydroxyguanine adducts. Since a human counterpart exists for the yeast gene OGG1 (hOGG1) encoding an enzyme that repairs 8-hydroxyguanine, its polymorphism, Ser(326)Cys, might have potential as a genetic marker for cancer susceptibility. To investigate its association with stomach cancer risk and possible interactions with environmental factors, we conducted a case-control study of 101 stomach cancer cases and 198 controls using PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism and a questionnaire approach. The proportional distribution of the Cys/Cys alleles did not differ between stomach cancer cases and controls, but subgroup analyses revealed that a frequent drinking habit elevated the odds ratio (OR) for stomach cancer in Cys/Cys compared to Ser/Ser and Ser/Cys carriers. The ORs with frequent consumption of pickled vegetables and meat tended to be higher in Cys/Cys than in Ser/Ser and Ser/Cys carriers, these interactions being on the borderline of statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the hOGG1 Ser(326)Cys polymorphism may alter the impact of some environmental factors on stomach cancer development. For confirmation, an additional study with a larger number of subjects is now required. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11960057
AU - Lowenfels AB; Maisonneuve P
TI - Associated primary tumors in patients with gastric cancer.
SO - J Clin Gastroenterol 2002 May-Jun;34(5):501-2
UI - 11960064
AU - Dinis-Ribeiro M; Lomba-Viana H; Silva R; Moreira-Dias L; Lomba-Viana R
TI - Associated primary tumors in patients with gastric cancer.
SO - J Clin Gastroenterol 2002 May-Jun;34(5):533-5
AD - Department of Gastroenterology, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal. email@example.com
GOAL: To determine the prevalence of associated primary tumors in patients with gastric cancer. STUDY: Retrospective study of 2,668 patients with gastric cancer observed at our department between July and Gates criteria, and included tumors that were not considered to be a metastasis, invasion, or