National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: June 1, 2002
UI - 11978546
AU - Okamura K; Kiyoshima T; Shima K; Kobayashi I; Matsuo K; Ishibashi H;
TI - Komatsu S; Rasul AM; Sakai H Immunohistochemical expression of CA19-9 and CA125 in mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary gland.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Apr;38(3):244-50
AD - Department of Oral Pathology, Fukuoka Dental College, 2-15-1 Tamura, Sawara-ku, 814-0193, Fukuoka, Japan.
This study examined the immunohistochemical expression of carbohydrate antigens CA19-9 and CA125 and their relationship to various biological parameters in 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and 18 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) arising from salivary glands. The series showed higher immunopositivity for CA125 (67% for MEC; 33% for ACC) than for CA19-9 (59% for MEC; 11% for ACC). CA19-9 epitope was mainly expressed in cystic (MEC) and cribriform/tubular (ACC) components of carcinoma tissues. Solid components in MEC occasionally showed positive staining for CA19-9. CA125 was evenly expressed in both ACC and MEC tissues regardless of their different histological components. The positive expression of CA19-9 and CA125 in the carcinoma tissues did not influence the clinical course of patients with MEC and ACC. A significant relationship was only demonstrated between the immunohistochemical expression of CA125 and the low proliferative activity (LI) evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. However, no significant relationship was found between LI and the patients' clinical course. These results suggest that the immunostaining for CA19-9 and CA125 provide no reliable data to predict the clinical course of patients with MEC and ACC of the salivary glands.
UI - 11962002
AU - Almela Cortes R; Garcia-Hirschfeld Garcia JM; Ramos Lopez B
TI - [Myoepithelioma of the parotid gland]
SO - An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am 2002;29(1):53-9
AD - Servicio ORL, Hospital General de Especialidades Ciudad de Jaen, Jaen.
Myoepithelioma of the salivary gland is a benign tumor set up almost exclusively for myoepithelial cells. It is considered as the terminal form of the histopathologic spectrum of mixed tumors, but owing to its monomorphic appearance is considered an aside form. In this article is reported one myoepithelial case of the parotid gland and are also reviewed the published literature of this sort of neoplasms.
UI - 12003582
AU - Lai SY; Weinstein GS; Chalian AA; Rosenthal DI; Weber RS
TI - Parotidectomy in the treatment of aggressive cutaneous malignancies.
SO - Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002 May;128(5):521-6
AD - Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 5 Silverstein/Ravdin, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
BACKGROUND: Aggressive nonmelanoma skin cancer (ANMSC) of the head and neck may require parotidectomy because of neurotropic spread, direct invasion of the parotid gland, or parotid metastasis. OBJECTIVE: To review our experience with parotidectomy in the treatment of these tumors to examine the indications for this procedure and to analyze treatment outcomes. We emphasize the importance of early identification of an ANMSC and a systematic approach to treatment. DESIGN: Review of 23 patients with an ANMSC who required parotidectomy with or without facial (VII) nerve sacrifice between January 5, 1996, and December 27, 1999. Median follow-up for all patients was 24 months. SETTING: Academic tertiary care referral center. PATIENTS: This study focused on 23 (median age, 71 years) of 54 patients treated for an ANMSC. Most tumors were in the periauricular (n = 9) and the frontozygomatic (n = 6) areas. Seven patients presented with facial weakness or paralysis. Three patients had clinically evident parotid metastasis, while 14 patients had tumors directly invading the parotid gland. Eighteen patients had recurrent disease that had been treated previously with Mohs micrographic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Following wide local excision of the ANMSC, 12 patients had resection of the lateral parotid lobe with preservation of the nerve, while 11 required radical parotidectomy with sacrifice of 1 or more branches. Nineteen patients received cervical lymphadenectomy. Postoperative radiotherapy was administered in 19 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tumor pathologic findings (specifically, perineural invasion of the facial nerve), locoregional control or recurrence, disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. RESULTS: Neurotropic spread to the facial nerve was present in 6 patients and was more likely to occur in younger patients (51 vs 75 years, P =.006). Locoregional failures occurred in 9 patients following treatment. Patients who required parotidectomy in their surgical treatment for an ANMSC were more likely to have recurrent disease (P =.0002). Disease-specific and overall survival was 79% and 69%, respectively, at 42 months. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ANMSC may require parotidectomy in the context of neurotropic spread, regional metastasis, or direct invasion into the parotid gland. Surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy is necessary in most patients because of adverse clinical and pathologic findings. A systematic approach to the management of the parotid and facial nerve in the presence of these aggressive tumors is required. Despite comprehensive treatment, local recurrence of ANMSC and mortality remain high.
UI - 11997785
AU - Lin SJ; Dutra JC; Ostrowski VB
TI - Synchronous ipsilateral cerebellopontine angle glossopharyngeal schwannoma and parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma.
SO - Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002 Apr;126(4):423-5
AD - Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
UI - 12025006
AU - Tanimoto H; Kumoi K; Otsuki N; Hirayama Y
TI - Multiple primary pleomorphic adenomas in a single parotid gland: report of a new case.
SO - Ear Nose Throat J 2002 May;81(5):341-5
AD - Department of Otolaryngology, Himeji National Hospital, Hyogo, Japan. email@example.com
The development of multiple primary pleomorphic adenomas in a single parotid gland is extremely rare in previously untreated patients, as only nine cases have been previously reported. In this article, we report the tenth such case, which occurred in an 87-year-old Japanese women. We also report the results of our 7-plus-year review of the types of parotid tumors seen at our institution. We identified 98 tumors in 89 patients; pleomorphic adenomas were the most common tumors, accounting for 45.9% of the total.
UI - 12025008
AU - Holden B; Colome-Grimmer M; Savage C; Stierman K; Pou AM
TI - Malignant eccrine acrospiroma with metastasis to the parotid.
SO - Ear Nose Throat J 2002 May;81(5):352-5
AD - Department of Surgery, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, USA.
Malignant eccrine acrospiromas are rare. Clinically, they resemble other cutaneous lesions. A high index of suspicion must be maintained in cases of histologically benign eccrine acrospiromas for three reasons: (1) malignant transformation can occur, (2) the presence of both benign and malignant tissue can lead to a false-negative diagnosis if only the benign component is obtained in the biopsy specimen, and (3) benign-appearing tumors can recur locally or metastasize. The primary treatment is wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection. The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy requires further investigation. We describe a case of malignant eccrine acrospiroma in an 80-year-old man, and we review the literature on this tumor, with emphasis on the differential diagnosis.
UI - 11904344
AU - Zarbo RJ
TI - Salivary gland neoplasia: a review for the practicing pathologist.
SO - Mod Pathol 2002 Mar;15(3):298-323
AD - Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
UI - 12030442
AU - Ota Y; Arai I; Aoki T; Yamazaki H; Karakida K; Tsukinoki K
TI - Acinic cell carcinoma of the sublingual gland accompanied by bone formation.
SO - Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2001 Dec;26(4-6):127-30
AD - Department of Oral Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan. email@example.com
A rare case of acinic cell carcinoma of the sublingual gland accompanied by bone formation is reported. The patient is a 79-year-old male who was referred to Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital with sublingual swelling. A tumor mass, 20 x 10 mm in diameter, was detected on the right side of the floor of the mouth. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a mass lesion with calcification in the sublingual gland. The patient underwent total sialadenectomy of the sublingual gland with conservation of the lingual nerve. Histologically, the lesion showed amylase-positive atypical cells with thyroid gland-like arrangement, and mature bone tissue in the stroma. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as acinic cell carcinoma accompanied by bone formation. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and two years after surgery, there are no signs of distant metastases or recurrence.
UI - 12001119
AU - Glas AS; Hollema H; Nap RE; Plukker JT
TI - Expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 and of MIB-1 in patients with recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.
SO - Cancer 2002 Apr 15;94(8):2211-6
AD - Department of Surgical Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
BACKGROUND: Patients with recurrent pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland are difficult to manage without considerable risk of facial nerve injury. The prognostic significance of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor (ER) reported in these adenomas was evaluated in patients with recurrent pleomorphic adenomas, comparing the results in a group of patients with primary adenomas without recurrences during 10 years of follow-up. METHODS: Paraffin embedded tumor samples from 52 patients with recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland were collected and stained immunohistochemically. Expression of PR, ER, Ki-67 antigen, and insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGFR-1) was analyzed in resected samples of recurrent tumors and was compared with samples from a control group of patients with primary pleomorphic adenoma. RESULTS: A difference (P < 0.05) in the type of tumor was observed between the recurrent group (more cell-poor variants) and the control group. ER expression was low in both groups (19% and 17%, respectively), but immunoreactivity for ER was higher (48%) in normal parotid gland tissue. PR expression in the recurrent group (96%) was higher compared with PR expression in the control group (61%; P < 0.001). PR expression and IGFR-1 expression were correlated weakly (correlation coefficient = 0.660; P = 0.053) in the recurrent group. The expression of growth fraction (Ki-67 score) and IGFR-1 was similar in both groups but was more extensive compared with normal parotid gland tissue. CONCLUSIONS: PR seems to be a prognostic factor in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. The PR pathway can be considered a potential target for hormone treatment in patients with these recurrent adenomas. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
UI - 12004723
AU - Fantasia JE; Damm DD
TI - Upper lip swelling. Benign salivary gland tumor.
SO - Gen Dent 2001 May-Jun;49(3):265, 324
AD - Division of Oral Pathology, Department of Dental Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY, USA.
UI - 11952751
AU - Verma K; Kapila K
TI - Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas.
SO - Cytopathology 2002 Apr;13(2):121-7
AD - Cytology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India.
This retrospective study was carried out to review the cases diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma in major or minor salivary glands and determine the difficulties encountered on typing this tumour on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Over a 19-year period (1982-2000) 488 pleomorphic adenomas were diagnosed on FNAC from different sites (parotid - 372 cases, submandibular - 95 cases; oral cavity - 21 cases). Histology was available in 232 cases. Twenty-nine cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was made but the cytological diagnosis was variable were also reviewed. In 216 of the 232 cases a good cytohistological correlation was available. On review only 4 of the 16 cases initially diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma on FNAC where the histology revealed a different tumour were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma, while 3 each were classified as adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign tumour ?type, and 2 each were diagnosed to be muco-epidermoid carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma. On review of the FNAC smears from 29 cases where a histological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was available while the cytological diagnosis was variable, only 11 (38%) were categorized as pleomorphic adenoma. In the majority of the remaining cases the cytological diagnosis did not alter markedly, 7 of 10 cases where the tumour could not be typed on cytology initially could not be typed even on review. In conclusion, FNAC is an ideal, fairly accurate preoperative procedure for the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas. Certain diagnostic problems occur in differentiating pleomorphic adenomas from adenoid cystic carcinoma, monomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma is difficult to identify on FNAC and in our series all 4 such cases on histology were considered benign on cytology.
UI - 12023583
AU - Choi HR; Batsakis JG; Callender DL; Prieto VG; Luna MA; El-Naggar AK
TI - Molecular analysis of chromosome 16q regions in dermal analogue tumors of salivary glands: a genetic link to dermal cylindroma?
SO - Am J Surg Pathol 2002 Jun;26(6):778-83
AD - Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.
Dermal analogue tumor, an uncommon subtype of basal cell monomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, has a remarkable clinical and histologic resemblance to dermal cylindroma. Molecular studies of familial and sporadic cylindromas have shown frequent alterations at chromosome 16q12-13 that have recently been found to house the cylindromatosis gene (CYLD). To determine the involvement of the chromosome 16q12-13 region in dermal analogue tumors, we performed loss of heterozygosity analysis using microsatellite markers flanking the cylindromatosis gene locus in 21 sporadic dermal analogue salivary tumors and 12 salivary and dermal lesions from two sisters. Loss of heterozygosity was identified in 17 (80.9%) of the 21 sporadic tumors and in nine of the 12 dermal and salivary gland dermal analogue tumors from the two sisters; a parathyroid adenoma from one sister and two lymphoepithelial lesions from the second sister showed no microsatellite alterations. Microsatellite instability was only identified in three sporadic tumors at marker D16S308. Markers D16S409 (centromeric), D16S541, and D16S308 (telomeric) to the CYLD gene showed the highest incidence of loss of heterozygosity (>65%). The minimally deleted region was flanked proximally by marker D16S389 and distally by marker D16S419 and spanned the 771.5-megabase fragment that included the CYLD locus. We conclude that dermal analogue tumor and cylindroma share similar incidence of alterations at the 16q12-13 region, supporting a common molecular origin.
UI - 12034530
AU - Udayakumar AM; Sundareshan TS; Mukherjee G; Biswas S; Rajan KR;
TI - Prabhakaran PS Submandibular synovial sarcoma with t(X;18) and synovial sarcoma of the toe with additional cytogenetic abnormalities: presentation of two cases and review of the literature.
SO - Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2002 Apr 15;134(2):151-5
AD - Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Pathology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, 560 029, Bangalore, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
We report cytogenetic findings from fine-needle aspiration samples of two synovial sarcoma patients. The cases are of interest because (1) one case is of a rare site (submandibular region) of the head and neck, and (2) the other is a patient with synovial sarcoma of the toe showing additional cytogenetic abnormalities along with t(X;18). The literature of this tumor is reviewed.
UI - 12022109
AU - To EW; Tsang WM; Tse GM
TI - Pleomorphic adenoma of the lower lip: report of a case.
SO - J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002 Jun;60(6):684-6
AD - Division of Head and Neck, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. email@example.com
UI - 11998433
AU - Rakotoarisoa B; Rantomalala Y; Raharisolo C; Rajaonarivony T;
TI - Rajaonarison M; Andrianandrasana A [Giant hemangioendothelioma of the parotid gland in an infant]
SO - Arch Pediatr 2002 Apr;9(4):442
UI - 12040652
AU - Chae SW; Sohn JH; Shin HS
TI - Granular cell tumor of the parotid gland. A case report.
SO - Acta Cytol 2002 May-Jun;46(3):550-4
AD - Department of Pathology, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, 94-200, Yeongdungpo-Dong, Yeongdeungpo-Ku, Seoul 150-020, Korea.
BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a relatively uncommon soft tissue tumor of putative Schwann cell origin. This tumor can occur in multiple sites as a small, nontender nodule, but the parotid gland is unusual, and only several cases have been reported. CASE: A 46-year-old woman presented with a slowly growing mass in the left preauricular region for three years. Imaging studies confirmed a nodular lesion in the superficial lobe of the left parotid gland. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology revealed scattered cellular clusters and single cells with abundant granular cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. Background exhibited eosinophilic, granular, cytoplasmic material, and some scattered naked nuclei were also noted. Histologic examination with supportive immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies confirmed GCT. CONCLUSION: GCT of the parotid gland is very unusual. Recognition of this tumor is important to make a definitive diagnosis before an operation. FNA is useful procedure in GCT of parotid gland for a preoperative diagnosis and proper treatment.
UI - 11886987
AU - Sungur N; Akan IM; Ulusoy MG; Ozdemir R; Kilinc H; Ortak T
TI - Clinicopathological evaluation of parotid gland tumors: a retrospective study.
SO - J Craniofac Surg 2002 Jan;13(1):26-30
AD - Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Ankara Numune Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. 1995 were reviewed for their clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, pathological diagnosis, treatment modalities, and age and sex distribution. An asymptomatic mass was the most common clinical presentation. All of the operations were performed by the same surgical team. Total and superficial parotidectomy was used for the treatment of the lesions and none of the patients underwent limited excision. Retrograde approach in 79 (34.4%) patients and anterograde approach in 151 (65.6%) was used. Eighteen patients with malignant tumors were followed up in cooperation with the radiation oncology clinic. Tumors were classified according to their histopathologic diagnosis. Among 192 (83%) benign and 38 (17%) malignant tumors, the most common benign tumor of parotid gland was pleomorphic adenoma (79.1%) while the most common malignant lesion was adenocystic carcinoma (44.7%). Incidences of pleomorphic adenoma, adenocystic and epidermoid carcinoma were greater in male patients. Complication rates in benign and malignant tumors were presented and statistically significant difference could not be found between anterograde and retrograde approach in terms of facial nerve injury (P > 0.05).
UI - 11894114
AU - Enlund F; Nordkvist A; Sahlin P; Mark J; Stenman G
TI - Expression of PLAG1 and HMGIC proteins and fusion transcripts in radiation-associated pleomorphic adenomas.
SO - Int J Oncol 2002 Apr;20(4):713-6
AD - The Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Pathology, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden.
Extensive cytogenetic investigations of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands have unequivocally demonstrated that they are cytogenetically monoclonal and are characterized by a high frequency of tumor specific chromosome abnormalities involving in particular chromosome bands 3p21, 8q12 and 12q14-15. Here we show that two radiation-associated and cytogenetically polyclonal adenomas without gross rearrangements of these breakpoints show simultaneous overexpression of the PLAG1 and HMGIC genes, i.e. the target genes of the 8q12 and 12q14-15 rearrangements in sporadic adenomas. In addition, one of the tumors expressed a cryptic CTNNB1-PLAG1 fusion transcript. Our findings strongly suggest that identical or very similar molecular mechanisms are operating during adenoma tumorigenesis irrespective of whether the tumors are cytogenetically polyclonal or whether they have non-random, tumor specific abnormalities. Cytogenetically polyclonal adenomas are thus most likely also of monoclonal origin.
UI - 11692959
AU - Frade Gonzalez C; Garcia-Caballero T; Lozano Ramirez A; Labella
TI - Caballero T [Cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors]
SO - Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2001 Aug-Sep;52(6):456-60
AD - Servicio de O.R.L., Hospital Clinico de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna.
Previous studies on cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors have shown the utility of immunostain with MIB1 in the differential diagnosis and prognosis of these neoplasms. We have carried out a study of 39 salivary gland tumors (17 benign), from different histological lineages. The immunocytochemical method used was the streptavidin--biotin--peroxidase complex which used the MIB1 monoclonal antibody. Benign tumors showed a low cell proliferation rates, below 5% with an overall average of 1.9%. The malignant tumors presented higher rates, with a middle value of 17.85%. Epidermoid carcinomas had the higher cell proliferation rates, with an average of 43%. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, we have observed that proliferation was greater at the peripheral level of tumor nests and cell surrounding the cystic structures. Neoplasms of low grade of malignancy presented lower cell proliferation rates. The MIB1 immunostain allowed to reach a differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, specially in those cases in which there could be any doubt.
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