National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: July 1, 2002
UI - 11952858
AU - Theocharis S; Karkantaris C; Philipides T; Agapitos E; Gika A; Margeli
TI - A; Kittas C; Koutselinis A Expression of metallothionein in lung carcinoma: correlation with histological type and grade.
SO - Histopathology 2002 Feb;40(2):143-51
AD - Department of Histology and Embryology, University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIMS: Over-expression of cellular metallothionein occurs frequently in human tumours but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess metallothionein expression in cases of lung carcinoma and to correlate it with histopathological parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tumour tissue samples from 89 patients with lung carcinoma were immunostained by the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase technique, using a monoclonal antibody against both metallothionein-1 and -2 isoforms. Positive matallothionein immunostaining was prominent in 44 out of 89 (49%) and negative in 45 out of 89 (51%) cases of lung carcinoma examined. Metallothionein positivity was prominent in 32 out of 43 (74%) cases of squamous cell lung carcinoma, and in 12 out of 35 (34%) cases of adenocarcinoma, while it was negative in all 11 cases of small-cell lung carcinoma examined, presenting a statistically significant difference between the different histological types. The intensity of metallothionein staining revealed a statistically significant difference between the squamous cell and adenocarcinoma cases examined. The pattern and extent of metallothionein staining in tumour cells and the expression of metallothionein in stromal cells were not correlated with histopathological parameters (type and grade) in metallothionein-positive cases of lung carcinoma examined. No association was found between metallothionein expression and lymph node status in the examined cases of lung carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that expression of metallothionein was evident in squamous cell lung carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, but absent in small-cell lung carcinoma, supporting evidence for participation of this protein in the biological mechanisms underlying the carcinogenic evolution in the lung.
UI - 12044890
AU - Wessel I; Jensen LH; Renodon-Corniere A; Sorensen TK; Nitiss JL; Jensen
TI - PB; Sehested M Human small cell lung cancer NYH cells resistant to the bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-187 exhibit a functional dominant Tyr165Ser mutation in the Walker A ATP binding site of topoisomerase II alpha.
SO - FEBS Lett 2002 Jun 5;520(1-3):161-6
AD - Department of Pathology, Laboratory Center, Rigshospitalet 5431, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Bisdioxopiperazine anti-cancer agents are catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase II which by unknown means lock the enzyme in a closed clamp form and inhibit its ATPase activity. In order to demarcate a putative pharmacophore, we here describe a novel Tyr165Ser mutation in the enzyme's Walker A ATP binding site leading to specific bisdioxopiperazine resistance when transformed into a temperature-conditional yeast system. The Tyr165Ser mutation differed from a previously described Arg162Gln by being heterozygous and by purified Tyr165Ser enzyme being drug-resistant in a kinetoplast DNA decatenation enzymatic assay. This suggested dominant nature of Tyr165Ser was supported by co-transformation studies in yeast of plasmids carrying wild type and mutant genes. These results enable a model of the bisdioxopiperazine pharmacophore using the proposed asymmetric ATP hydrolysis of the enzyme.
UI - 10931451
AU - Paesmans M; Sculier JP; Lecomte J; Thiriaux J; Libert P; Sergysels R;
TI - Bureau G; Dabouis G; Van Cutsem O; Mommen P; Ninane V; Klastersky J Prognostic factors for patients with small cell lung carcinoma: analysis of a series of 763 patients included in 4 consecutive prospective trials with a minimum follow-up of 5 years.
SO - Cancer 2000 Aug 1;89(3):523-33
AD - Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels, Belgium.
BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to identify prognostic factors for response to chemotherapy, overall survival, and long term survival of patients with small cell lung carcinoma and to construct a classification of patients on the basis of their expected overall survival. METHODS: In the 763 patients registered in 4 consecutive clinical trials conducted by the European Lung Cancer Working Party from 1982 to 1993, the impact of 21 pretreatment variables assessable in a routine practice was analyzed for the various outcomes with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. RESULTS: The key prognostic role of disease extent was confirmed for all the outcomes. Additional independent prognostic factors for response to chemotherapy were gender, neutrophil count, and hemoglobin level; for overall survival, these factors were Karnofsky performance status, gender, and neutrophil count. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation algorithms (RECPAM) analysis classified patients into 4 groups, taking into consideration disease extent, Karnofsky performance status, age, gender, and neutrophil count. Median survival times for the 4 groups were 60, 47, 36, and 28 weeks, respectively. For long term survival, defined as a minimum survival of 2 years (9% of the patients), Karnofsky performance status was the only independent predictive factor, along with the achievement of a complete response (if this was taken into consideration). Small cell lung carcinoma remained the main cause of death among these patients. Cure was infrequent, with only 14 patients alive and disease free at 5 years (1.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study the long term prognosis associated with small cell lung carcinoma was poor. The well-known prognostic values of disease extent and Karnofsky performance status were confirmed, but the authors also identified age and gender (which are more controversial) as independent characteristics, in addition to citing the role of complete response in the attainment of long term survival. The independent role of neutrophils observed by the authors. must be validated by further studies. Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
UI - 11955649
AU - Trojan A; Tun-Kyi A; Odermatt B; Nestle FO; Stahel RA
TI - Functional detection of epithelial cell adhesion molecule specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in patients with lung cancer, colorectal cancer and in healthy donors.
SO - Lung Cancer 2002 May;36(2):151-8
AD - Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Ramistrasse 100, 8091, Switzerland. email@example.com
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) derived antigenic peptides have been identified that can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted fashion. Thus, altered expression of Ep-CAM in a variety of human tumors might render a potential target for T cell mediated therapy. We have examined, whether the novel HLA-A*0201 restricted peptide ILYENNVIT (184-192) corresponding to Ep-CAM and one heteroclitic modified variant peptide previously demonstrated to be immunogenic in the human system can elicit antigen specific CTL responses in HLA-A2 positive patients with history of Ep-CAM expressing cancer of lung and colon. Specific CTL recognition of T2 target cells pulsed with the native peptide as well as of the lung cancer cell line A549 indicates that an appropriate T cell repertoire can be expanded from peripheral blood from patients in clinical remission and with advanced cancer. Despite an overall low frequency, peptide specific precursor CTLs could be readily expanded from peripheral blood from 6/8 patients that were diagnosed previously with Ep-CAM expressing lung cancer and 4/8 control individuals (2/5 healthy donors and 2/3 colon cancer patients). CTLs from three of five lung cancer patients tested also lyzed the HLA-A2(+) and Ep-CAM expressing lung cancer cell line A549. We did not detect an increased frequency of pCTLs after peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were stimulated with the heteroclitic compound peptide. The results of our study indicate that Ep-CAM specific precursor CTL can be expanded in vitro and a specific T cell response against this epitope can be elicited in patients at various stages of lung cancer.
UI - 11824875
AU - Adlard JW; Joseph J; Brammer CV; Gerrard GE
TI - Open access follow-up for lung cancer: patient and staff satisfaction.
SO - Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2001;13(6):404-8
AD - Yorkshire Regional Centre for Cancer Treatment, Cookridge Hospital, Leeds, UK.
The majority of patients with lung cancer have incurable disease from presentation and a survival measured in months. Treatments offered to these patients are aimed at the palliation of symptoms with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or with supportive measures. It has been traditional to offer regular outpatient follow-up after initial palliative treatment. Further treatment options, which may be limited, are usually reserved for the recurrence of troublesome symptoms. A pilot 'open access' lung cancer clinic has been set up. Rather than have regular follow-up at the hospital, patients who have completed initial palliative treatments are discharged to the community with follow-up by their general practitioner and Macmillan nurse. Review at the open access clinic can be arranged at short notice if requested by the patient, carers, general practitioner or Macmillan nurse. The outcomes and level of satisfaction of patients, their relatives and staff to this method of follow-up were found to be positive. Open access follow-up may be useful for many patients after the completion of initial palliative treatment.
UI - 11822755
AU - Kao A; Shiun SC; Hsu NY; Sun SS; Lee CC; Lin CC
TI - Technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile chest imaging for small-cell lung cancer. Relationship to chemotherapy response (six courses of combination of cisplatin and etoposide) and p-glycoprotein or multidrug resistance related protein expression.
SO - Ann Oncol 2001 Nov;12(11):1561-6
AD - Department of Nuclear Medicine, China Medical College Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIMS: This is a retrospective and adaptive randomization study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) chest-imaging results, chemotherapy response and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) or multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) expression in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Before chemotherapy, 30 patients (11 females, 19 males, ages: 52-69 years) with SCLC, including 14 extensive diseases without localized problems and 16 limited diseases in excess of solitary pulmonary nodule, underwent early chest imaging, including visual interpretation and quantitative analyses of tumor uptake ratio (TUR), 10 minutes after intravenous injection of Tc-99m MIBI. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed, using multiple nonconsecutive sections of the biopsy specimens, to detect Pgp and MRP expressions. Chemotherapy response was evaluated in the third month after completion of treatment by clinical and radiological methods. RESULTS: All 15 (100%) of the SCLC patients with complete or partial response had positive Tc-99m MIBI chest SPECT results, but negative ones for both Pgp and MRP expression. Twelve of the 15 (80%) SCLC patients with no response or progressive disease had negative Tc-99m MIBI chest SPECT results and were positive for either Pgp or MRP expression (P < 0.05). Negative Tc-99m MIBI chest SPECT results predicted complete or partial response. The TUR of patients with complete or partial response (1.91 +/- 0.29 with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.75-2.07) was significantly higher than that of patients with no response or progressive disease (1.19 +/- 0.28 with a 95% CI: 1.04-1.35). CONCLUSION: Tc-99m MIBI chest images are a potential tool for understanding Pgp and MRP expressions in SCLC and for predicting patient chemotherapy response.
UI - 11822756
AU - Huisman C; Postmus PE; Giaccone G; Smit EF
TI - A phase I study of sequential intravenous topotecan and etoposide in lung cancer patients.
SO - Ann Oncol 2001 Nov;12(11):1567-73
AD - Department of Pulmonary, University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
PURPOSE: The topoisomerase I inhibitor topotecan (T) and the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide (E) are active drugs in lung cancer. The complementary functions of their targets may suggest benefit from the combined use of these agents but drug scheduling has been shown to play a critical role in preclinical models. To establish the optimal schedule and assess the impact of sequential administration of the combination of T and E, we conducted a dose finding study of sequential intravenous T and E in a four-weekly-schedule in relapsed lung cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The importance of drug sequence was assessed in consecutive patients throughout all dose levels; patients received in the first course either T followed by E (the TE group: T on days 1-3 and E on days 4-6) or E before T (the ET group: F on days 1-3 and Ton days 4-6). The sequence of Tand E was alternated in the successive courses. In this crossover design, each patient served as his own control for analysis of hematological toxicity in which TE sequence was compared to that of the ET sequence. Moreover, hematological toxicity after the first course was compared between the TE and the ET groups. The starting dose was T/E 0.75/75 mg/m2 at dose level 1and dose escalation was planned to T/E 1.00/75 mg/nm2 at dose level 2, T/E 1.00/100 mg/m2 at dose level 3, T/E 1.25/100 mg/m2 at dose level 4 and T/E 1.50/100 mg/m2 at dose level 5. Nineteen patients (small-cell lung cancer 7, non-small-cell lung cancer 11, mesothelioma 1 patient) were included. RESULTS: The principal toxicity was myelosuppression, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. At dose level 3 several grade 4 toxicities were observed. DLT (febrile neutropenia) occurred in two patients, one in the TE and one in the ET group and precluded further dose escalation. There was no significant difference in WBC and platelet nadirs during the first course between the TE and the ET group. The influence of the sequence of administration of topotecan and etoposide was calculated by comparing the nadir values of cycles I and II for each patient. For none of the dose levels, a significant sequence-dependent effect could be detected. The MTD was reached at the doses of 100 mg/m2 topotecan and 75 mg/m2 etoposide. No objective responses were seen. CONCLUSION: Although the combined use of topoisomerase I and II inhibitors is attractive on theoretical grounds, excessive myelosuppression prevents substantial dose escalation.
UI - 11829085
AU - Osterlind K
TI - Chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer.
SO - Eur Respir J 2001 Dec;18(6):1026-43
AD - Dept of Oncology, Herlev University Hospital, Denmark.
Chemotherapy is the backbone in the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and radiotherapy is an important adjunct in limited stage disease. The role of chest irradiation is now documented in three meta-analysis, based on the same body of data. Trials on timing, scheduling and fractionation could have followed a more stringent development line but altogether, the highest efficacy seems to be obtained with early, concurrent twice-daily chest irradiation. Patients in complete remission should have prophylactic cranial irradiation, which reduces the risk of brain metastases and of death from SCLC. Four series of chemotherapy seem to be sufficient in limited-stage disease while six is recommended in extensive disease. The combination of etoposide plus cis- or carboplatin is appropriate in both stages and addition of other agents has no clinically important impact on the survival. Use of haematological growth factors such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may enable higher doses or more frequent dosage. Three randomized trials on GM-CSF showed a negative outcome while G-CSF support may result in better survival rates, but a more cost-efficient policy must be found. High-dose chemotherapy plus haematological stem-cell support is still under investigation but disappointing long-term survival rates means there is not much optimism for this strategy. New strategies in general are requested in the treatment of extensive-stage disease and of elderly patients. Phase II trials suggest that good-risk patients with extensive disease should be treated aggressively, intermediate-risk patients more gently, and palliation must be the primary aim in the treatment of poor-risk patients. In elderly patients impressive survival rates are obtained with 3-4 series of chemotherapy and radiation delivered in 5-10 fractions. A number of new agents are active but more trials are required before each has found a place, if any, in the treatment of small cell lung cancer. To conclude, the randomized trial is still an important instrument in clinical oncology, and trials in small cell lung cancer must be large, which is why the cooperation of organizations and multicentres is urgent.
UI - 12057141
AU - Murray N; Sheehan F
TI - Limited stage small cell lung cancer.
SO - Curr Treat Options Oncol 2001 Feb;2(1):63-70
AD - British Columbia Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 4E6.
The management of limited stage small cell lung cancer begins with a firm pathologic diagnosis and careful staging. Patients with adequate pulmonary function, ambulatory performance status, and no evidence of metastatic disease outside a "tolerable" local radiotherapy volume should have consultation from both medical and radiation oncology disciplines for planning of integrated therapy. The chemotherapy prescription recommended is cisplatin plus etoposide at standard doses for four chemotherapy cycles. Thoracic irradiation should be administered concurrently with the first or second cycle of cisplatin and etoposide. Patients with complete response and excellent partial response should receive prophylactic cranial irradiation after completion of all chemotherapy.
UI - 12057142
AU - Niell HB
TI - Extensive stage small cell lung cancer.
SO - Curr Treat Options Oncol 2001 Feb;2(1):71-6
AD - Van Vleet Cancer Center, University of Tennessee-Memphis, 3N Dunlap, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.
Small cell lung cancer is a rapidly proliferating, biologically aggressive form of lung cancer that has a short survival without treatment. Chemotherapy is the foundation of the therapeutic approach to patients with small cell lung cancer. Most patients present with extensive disease, and, although few patients are cured, significant improvement in survival is possible with modern chemotherapy. The role of radiation therapy in extensive disease is palliative, and surgery has little role in patient management. The standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with small cell lung cancer has become either cisplatin or carboplatin with etoposide. Second-line chemotherapy regimens are moderately effective in patients previously responding to initial chemotherapy. Newer chemotherapy agents show promise, but few randomized trials have been completed in extensive disease. Physicians should be encouraged to include their patients with extensive small cell lung cancer in the evolving clinical trials.
UI - 11963726
AU - Schalhorn A
TI - [Modern chemotherapy in bronchial carcinoma]
SO - Internist (Berl) 2002 Mar;43(3):416-30
AD - Medizinische Klinik III, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munchen.
UI - 11985730
AU - Mall JW; Schwenk W; Philipp AW; Meyer-Kipker C; Mall W; Muller J;
TI - Pollmann C Serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels correlate better with tumour stage in small cell lung cancer than albumin, neuron-specific enolase or lactate dehydrogenase.
SO - Respirology 2002 Jun;7(2):99-102
AD - Department of General, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Medical Faculty of the Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important cytokine in the process of angiogenesis. Elevated serum levels of the cytokine may determine cancer patients who will benefit from adjuvant anti-angiogenic therapy in the future. To correlate serum levels of VEGF with tumour stage and established prognostic markers in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a prospective study was performed on 70 patients (51 male, 19 female) with histologically proven SCLC were enrolled into the study. Staging of the disease included clinical investigation, bronchoscopy, chest X-ray, thoracic computed tomography and ultrasound. The patients were grouped into five stages according to the Marburg classification (very limited disease (VLD), limited disease (LD), extensive disease I (EDI), extensive disease II (EDII) and extensive disease III (EDIII)). Prior to treatment, a 10 mL serum sample from each patient was examined by ELISA to quantify levels of VEGF and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin levels were determined by photomorphometric analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the Waller-Duncan k ratio t-test and Pearson's correlation test. RESULTS: Serum VEGF levels correlated well with tumour stage (P < 0.0001). Albumin levels were not correlated with tumour stage, but levels of NSE and LDH increased with stage progression. When patients were divided into two groups (VLD and LD vs EDI-III), VEGF levels were significantly lower in the initial stages of the disease compared with extensive disease (P < 0.0001). Serum levels of VEGF correlated better with tumour stage than did concentrations of NSE, LDH or albumin. CONCLUSION: Serum VEGF levels may serve as an additional prognostic marker in the course of patients with SCLC. Further studies are needed to determine whether these patients may benefit from additional anti-angiogenic therapy in the future.
UI - 12065796
AU - Okuno SH; Jett JR
TI - Small cell lung cancer: current therapy and promising new regimens.
SO - Oncologist 2002;7(3):234-8
AD - Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
In this review, we cover current therapy and promising new regimens and highlight areas where improvement is needed in the management of small cell lung cancer.
UI - 12011196
AU - Cartman ML; Hatfield AC; Muers MF; Peake MD; Haward RA; Forman D;
TI - Yorkshire Cancer Management Study Group, Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service (NYCRIS), UK Lung cancer: district active treatment rates affect survival.
SO - J Epidemiol Community Health 2002 Jun;56(6):424-9
AD - NYCRIS, Leeds, UK.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study investigates variation in management and treatment of lung cancer patients and determines the impact of any variation in treatment on survival. DESIGN: A retrospective study of population based data held by the Northern & Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service (NYCRIS), comparing active treatment rates for lung cancer with survival by districts. SETTING The then 17 districts in Yorkshire and South Humber, England. PATIENTS: 22 654 patients registered with lung cancer between 1986 and 1994 and followed up until end of 1996. RESULTS: The overall rates of active treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) varied between districts from 37% to 56%. One year survival (with 95% CI) was significantly better in the districts with highest rates of active treatment 23% (22% to 24%) compared with 19% (17% to 20%) for those with lowest treatment rates. Non-small cell lung cancer patients (55%) in the districts with highest active treatment rates had an age adjusted relative risk of death during the follow up period, relative to risk of death in the districts with the lower treatment rates of 0.88 (0.83 to 0.92). Clinically diagnosed patients (34%) had an age adjusted RR of 0.92 (0.86 to 0.96). RR in small cell cancer (11%) was not significant. CONCLUSION: This study has shown wide variations in the rates of active treatment for lung cancer patients within districts across one large region of England. Active treatment was strongly associated with improved survival, especially in non-small cell lung cancer.
UI - 12085255
AU - Akhmedkhanov A; Toniolo P; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A; Koenig KL; Shore RE
TI - Aspirin and lung cancer in women.
SO - Br J Cancer 2002 Jul 1;87(1):49-53
AD - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, NBV-9E2, New York, NY 10016, USA. email@example.com
The association between aspirin use and lung cancer risk in women was examined in a case-control study nested in the New York University Women's Health Study, a large cohort in New York. Case subjects were all the 81 incident lung cancer cases who had provided information about aspirin use at enrollment and during the 1994-1996 follow up. Ten controls per case were randomly selected from among study participants who matched a case by age, menopausal status, and dates of enrollment and follow-up. Relative to no aspirin use, the odds ratio for lung cancer (all histological sub-types combined) among subjects who reported aspirin use three or more times per week for at least 6 months was 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.34-1.28), after adjustment for smoking and education. A stronger inverse association was observed in analyses restricted to non-small cell lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.96). These results suggest that regular aspirin use might be inversely associated with risk of lung cancer in women, particularly the non-small cell sub-type. Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
UI - 12115391
AU - Nakahara Y; Mochizuki Y; Miyamoto Y; Tanaka A; Kawamura T; Sasaki S;
TI - Nakahara Y; Katsura Y Mental state as a possible independent prognostic variable for survival in patients with advanced lung carcinoma.
SO - Cancer 2002 Jun 1;94(11):3006-15
AD - Department of Respiratory Medicine, Himeji National Hospital, Himeji-city, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Although psychologic factors have been reported to influence the progression of cancer, this theory remains controversial. A prospective study of patients with advanced lung carcinoma was performed to explore the influence of the patient's mental state on survival. METHODS: The patient's mental state was assessed with the Tokyo University Egogram. In a preliminary study, the egograms of long-term survivors (survival > 3 years) with TNM Stage IIIB or Stage IV lung carcinoma were compared with the egograms of consecutive, newly diagnosed lung carcinoma patients (controls). Next, in a prospective study, 123 patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma and 56 patients with small cell lung carcinoma (Stage IIIB or Stage IV; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1) completed the egogram. Based on the results of the preliminary study, the subjects in the prospective study were divided into Group A (Free Child [FC] >or= 50th percentile and Adapted Child [AC] < 50th percentile) and Group B (FC < 50 percentile or AC >or= 50 percentile). The survival of the two groups was compared. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the joint effect of the patient's mental state and other prognostic factors. RESULTS: In the preliminary study, the FC score of the long-term survivors was significantly higher and the AC score was significantly lower than those of the controls. In the prospective study, the survival of Group A was significantly longer than that of Group B both in the nonsmall cell lung carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma patients (P = 0.002 and P = 0.005, respectively, by the log-rank test). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that after adjustment for clinical factors, being in Group A was a significant predictor of survival both in the nonsmall cell and small cell lung carcinoma patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study demonstrate that the mental state of the patient as assessed by the egogram may have prognostic significance in patients with advanced lung carcinoma. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
The above citations and abstracts reflect those newly added to CANCERLIT for the month and topic listed in the title. The citations have been retrieved from CANCERLIT using a predefined search strategy of indexed subject terms. Although the search strategy has been refined as best as possible, citations may appear that are not directly related to the topic, and occasionally relevant references may be omitted.