National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: September 1, 2002
UI - 11960212
AU - Wakai T; Shirai Y; Hatakeyama K
TI - Radical second resection provides survival benefit for patients with T2 gallbladder carcinoma first discovered after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
SO - World J Surg 2002 Jul;26(7):867-71
AD - Division of Digestive and General Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Niigata City, 951-8510, Japan.
Port site recurrence or peritoneal seeding is a fatal complication following laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder carcinoma. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to determine the association of gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy with port site/peritoneal recurrence and to determine the role of radical second resection in the management of gallbladder carcinoma first diagnosed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 28 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder carcinoma were analyzed, of whom 10 had a radical second resection. Five patients had recurrences; port site/peritoneum recurrence in 3 and distant metastasis in 2. The incidence of port site/peritoneal recurrence was higher in patients with gallbladder perforation (3/7, 43%) than in those without (0/21, 0%) (p = 0.011). The outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was worse in 7 patients with gallbladder perforation (cumulative 5-year survival of 43%) than in those without (cumulative 5-year survival of 100%) (p <0.001). Among 13 patients with a pT2 tumor, the outcome after radical second resection (cumulative 5-year survival of 100%) was better than that after laparoscopic cholecystectomy alone (cumulative 5-year survival of 50%) (p = 0.039), although there was no survival benefit of radical second resection in the 15 patients with a pT1 tumor (p = 0.65). In conclusion, gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with port site/peritoneal recurrence and worse patient survival. Radical second resection may be beneficial for patients with pT2 gallbladder carcinoma first discovered after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
UI - 11077323
AU - Csendes A; Becerra M; Rojas J; Medina E
TI - Number and size of stones in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic gallstones and gallbladder carcinoma: a prospective study of 592 cases.
SO - J Gastrointest Surg 2000 Sep-Oct;4(5):481-5
AD - Department of Surgery and School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
The development of gallbladder carcinoma has been correlated with the presence of a single large gallstone in two retrospective studies. The objective of the present study was to determine the number and size of gallstones in patients with gallbladder carcinoma compared to asymptomatic and symptomatic female patients with gallstones. The following three groups of patients were included in this prospective trial: (A) 78 asymptomatic patients with gallstones; (B) 365 symptomatic patients with gallstones; and (C) 149 patients with gallbladder carcinoma. At the end of the operation, the resected gallbladder was opened and the number of stones counted. The maximum size of the stones was determined using calipers. Patients with gallbladder carcinoma were significantly older than patients in the other two groups (P <0.001). In the group with asymptomatic gallstones, there were significantly more patients with one single stone, whereas in the group with gallbladder carcinoma there were significantly more patients with multiple stones (more than 11; P <0.01). Patients with gallbladder carcinoma had significantly larger stones, regardless of the number of stones present (P <0.001). We postulate that the increase in the number and size of the stones among patients with gallbladder carcinoma could simply be an effect of aging or it could be a reflection of the long-term presence of stones in the gallbladder rather than some particular chemical or physical influence.
UI - 11154487
AU - Hintze RE; Abou-Rebyeh H; Adler A; Veltzke-Schlieker W; Felix R;
TI - Wiedenmann B Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography-guided unilateral endoscopic stent placement for Klatskin tumors.
SO - Gastrointest Endosc 2001 Jan;53(1):40-6
AD - Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, University Hospital Charite, Campus Virchow, Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Advanced and incurable Klatskin tumors of Bismuth-type III and IV cause obstructive jaundice. Palliation of patients with Klatskin tumors is usually carried out by bilateral endoscopic stent placement. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in such patients is associated with a comparatively high morbidity and mortality mainly due to postprocedure bacterial cholangitis. To reduce ERC-related complications the outcome of replacing ERC with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) was investigated. Subsequently, unilateral contrast injection and stent placement were performed, thus avoiding bilateral contrast injection and stent insertion. METHODS: Patients thought to have a Klatskin tumor underwent clinical evaluation, laboratory, and noninvasive imaging studies before ERC. Patients were enrolled in this feasibility study if investigators agreed with the clinical diagnosis of an advanced and incurable Klatskin tumor. MRCP images were used to determine the predominate ductal drainage for the liver segments thus directing stent placement. Based on these findings, unilateral ERC and subsequent unilateral stent placement were performed. Antibiotics were not given before ERC. Amsterdam-type stents (10F) were placed and replaced routinely at 2 months. In cases of earlier occlusion, the stents were replaced immediately. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients underwent MRCP, ERC, and unilateral stent deployment. Two further patients enrolled after MRCP were withdrawn because ERC could not be carried out. In 35 patients with unilateral stents bilirubin levels decreased (18.9 +/- 6.3 mg/dL to 3.2 +/- 2.3 mg/dL) and jaundice resolved in 86%. After first stent deployment, post-ERC bacterial cholangitis occurred in 6% (2 of 35) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: This new method of MRCP-guided endoscopic unilateral stent placement could reduce ERC-related complications caused by initial stent deployment.The results of this study justify a randomized prospective comparative trial.
UI - 12177780
AU - Wistuba II; Maitra A; Carrasco R; Tang M; Troncoso P; Minna JD; Gazdar
TI - AF High resolution chromosome 3p, 8p, 9q and 22q allelotyping analysis in the pathogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma.
SO - Br J Cancer 2002 Aug 12;87(4):432-40
AD - Department of Anatomic Pathology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Marcoleta 367, P.O. Box 114-D, Santiago, Chile. email@example.com
Our recent genome-wide allelotyping analysis of gallbladder carcinoma identified 3p, 8p, 9q and 22q as chromosomal regions with frequent loss of heterozygosity. The present study was undertaken to more precisely identify the presence and location of regions of frequent allele loss involving those chromosomes in gallbladder carcinoma. Microdissected tissue from 24 gallbladder carcinoma were analysed for PCR-based loss of heterozygosity using 81 microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 3p (n=26), 8p (n=14), 9q (n=29) and 22q (n=12) regions. We also studied the role of those allele losses in gallbladder carcinoma pathogenesis by examining 45 microdissected normal and dysplastic gallbladder epithelia accompanying gallbladder carcinoma, using 17 microsatellite markers. Overall frequencies of loss of heterozygosity at 3p (100%), 8p (100%), 9q (88%), and 22q (92%) sites were very high in gallbladder carcinoma, and we identified 13 distinct regions undergoing frequent loss of heterozygosity in tumours. Allele losses were frequently detected in normal and dysplastic gallbladder epithelia. There was a progressive increase of the overall loss of heterozygosity frequency with increasing severity of histopathological changes. Allele losses were not random and followed a sequence. This study refines several distinct chromosome 3p, 8p, 9q and 22q regions undergoing frequent allele loss in gallbladder carcinoma that will aid in the positional identification of tumour suppressor genes involved in gallbladder carcinoma pathogenesis.
UI - 12140616
AU - Ouchi K; Mikuni J; Kakugawa Y; Organizing Committee, The 30th Annual
TI - Congress of the Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallbladder carcinoma: results of a Japanese survey of 498 patients.
SO - J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2002;9(2):256-60
AD - Department of Surgery, Miyagi Cancer Center Hospital, 47-1 Nodayama Shiode-Medishima, Natori 981-1293, Japan.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The long-term effects of initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the prognosis of patients with GBC remain unknown because of the limited numbers of patients reported from single institutions. This study was designed to determine the long-term prognosis of patients with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), and to clarify the role of LC for the treatment of GBC and the benefit of aggressive additional excision. METHODS: The clinical courses and outcomes of 498 patients with laparoscopically removed GBC registered in a nationwide survey were examined. Written questionnaires sent to members of the Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery included questions on Preoperative diagnosis, timing and methods to obtain final diagnosis, depth of invasion, second surgical procedure, prognosis of patients, and type of recurrence, if any. RESULTS: The 5-year survival rates of patients after LC according to the depth of invasion were as follows: 99% in those with pT1a (limited to the mucosa), 95% in those with pT1b (muscularis), 70% in those with pT2 (subserosa), 20% in those with pT3 (serosa), and 0% in those with pT4 (serosa with invasion to adjacent organs). Perforation of the gallbladder during LC was found in 20% of the patients. Patients with gallbladders perforated during LC showed a significantly lower survival rate than did those without perforated gallbladders ( P < 0.01). Additional excision during or after LC was carried out in 48% of the patients, and the frequency of additional excision increased in accordance with the depth of invasion. Compared with patients who underwent LC only, additional excision resulted in better survival in patients with pT2 or pT3 tumors ( P = 0.051 and P < 0.05, respectively), but this difference was not found in patients with pT1 or pT4 tumors. CONCLUSIONS: LC is not likely to worsen the survival rate of patients with GBC compared with the survival rate of patients undergoing a standard open radical procedure, as long as additional excision is conducted for patients with laparoscopically removed pT2 or pT3 GBCs. Special attention should be paid to prevention of bile spillage during LC.
UI - 12168833
AU - Suto T; Sugai T; Habano W; Uesugi N; Kanno S; Saito K; Nakamura S
TI - Allelotype analysis of the PTEN, Smad4 and DCC genes in biliary tract cancer.
SO - Anticancer Res 2002 May-Jun;22(3):1529-36
AD - Department of Surgery I, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan.
Aberrations of the PTEN, Smad4 and DCC genes have not been determined in biliary tract cancers. We performed allelotype analysis to screen for alterations of these genes. We looked for the presence of allelic imbalance (AI) at the PTEN and Smad4 genes in extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) and ampullary cancers using polymorphic microsatellite markers. These tumors were also examined for AI at the DCC gene using polymerase chain reaction amplification of variable numbers of tandem repeats. AI at the PTEN, Smad4 and DCC genes was observed in 5.3%, 8.3% and 20.7%, respectively, of EHBD tumor cases. AI at the PTEN, Smad4 and DCC genes was detected in 13.3%, 50% and 8.3%, respectively, of ampullary cancer cases. Our results suggest that (a) alteration of the Smad4 gene is a major factor in the development of ampullary cancer and (b) PTEN, Smad4 and DCC genes are altered infrequently in EHBD cancers.
UI - 11956586
AU - Nakamura T; Ajiki T; Murao S; Kamigaki T; Maeda S; Ku Y; Kuroda Y
TI - Prognostic significance of S100A4 expression in gallbladder cancer.
SO - Int J Oncol 2002 May;20(5):937-41
AD - Department of Biomedical Informatics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
The calcium-binding protein S100A4 has been characterized as a metastasis-inducing molecule, and regulates cell motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. In order to clarify the significance of the expression of S100A4 as a prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer, S100A4 expression in resected gallbladder cancers were examined using an immunohistochemical staining technique. The relationship between S100A4 expression and clinicopathological factors including prognosis were evaluated. Twenty-five of 60 cases (42%) demonstrated positive staining for S100A4. There was no statistically significant association between S100A4 and histological grade, T, N, M factor, presence of stone, or stage. Kaplan-Meier method showed the 5-year survival rate of the group staining positive for S100A4 (31.5%) to be statistically poorer than that of the group staining negative for S100A4 (78.2%). Also in T2 cases, the 5-year survival rate of the group staining positive for S100A4 (57.1%) was statistically poorer than that of the group staining negative for S100A4 (83.3%). On univariate analysis, positive staining for S100A4 was a significant prognostic factor, and the hazard ratio was 4.05. On multivariate analysis, positive staining for S100A4 is also a significant predictor of prognosis second to T factor. These results indicate that positive staining for S100A4 is useful in assessing the prognosis of patients with gallbladder cancer as well as TNM factors.
UI - 12190199
AU - Seki S; Kitada T; Sakaguchi H; Hirohashi K; Kinoshita H
TI - Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of human gallbladder.
SO - Am J Gastroenterol 2002 Aug;97(8):2146-7
UI - 12145603
AU - Norton ID; Gostout CJ; Baron TH; Geller A; Petersen BT; Wiersema MJ
TI - Safety and outcome of endoscopic snare excision of the major duodenal papilla.
SO - Gastrointest Endosc 2002 Aug;56(2):239-43
AD - Developmental Endoscopy Unit, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55902, USA.
BACKGROUND: The optimal management of adenoma of the major duodenal papilla is not established. Options include surgical excision, endoscopic ablative techniques, snare excision, and observation with periodic biopsies. The aims of this retrospective study were to determine the safety and outcome of snare excision of the papilla. METHODS: Twenty-eight snare excisions of the papilla were performed in 26 patients. Sixteen had familial adenomatous polyposis. In 22 procedures, a minisnare was used, and in 6 cases a prototype snare was designed for excision of the papilla. Pancreatic stents were placed as a prophylactic measure at the discretion of the endoscopist (n = 10). RESULTS: Histopathologically, resected tissue included 25 adenomas, 1 inflammatory polyp, 1 invasive malignancy, and 1 normal papilla. Immediate complications were minor bleeding (n = 2), mild pancreatitis (n = 4) and a duodenal perforation (n = 1). The presence (n = 10) or absence (n = 18) of a pancreatic stent did not correlate with subsequent pancreatitis (2 in each group, p = NS). Follow-up was available for 21 patients (median, 9 months; range, 2-32 months). Pancreatic duct stenosis at the papillectomy site resulted in pancreatitis in 2 patients (17%) at, respectively, 4 months and 24 months. Follow-up endoscopy revealed recurrent/residual adenomatous tissue in 2 (10%). CONCLUSIONS: Snare excision of the major duodenal papilla was well tolerated. Most complications were mild except for a small duodenal perforation. Stenosis of the pancreatic duct orifice with pancreatitis may be a late complication.
UI - 12192322
AU - Yeo CJ; Cameron JL; Lillemoe KD; Sohn TA; Campbell KA; Sauter PK;
TI - Coleman J; Abrams RA; Hruban RH Pancreaticoduodenectomy with or without distal gastrectomy and extended retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma, part 2: randomized controlled trial evaluating survival, morbidity, and mortality.
SO - Ann Surg 2002 Sep;236(3):355-66; discussion 366-8
AD - Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in a prospective, randomized single-institution trial, the end points of operative morbidity, operative mortality, and survival in patients undergoing standard versus radical (extended) pancreaticoduodenectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Numerous retrospective reports and a few prospective randomized trials have suggested that the performance of an extended lymphadenectomy in association with a pancreaticoduodenal resection may improve survival for patients with pancreatic and other periampullary adenocarcinomas. METHODS: Between were enrolled in a prospective, randomized single-institution trial. After intraoperative verification (by frozen section) of margin-negative resected periampullary adenocarcinoma, patients were randomized to either a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy (removing only the peripancreatic lymph nodes en bloc with the specimen) or a radical (extended) pancreaticoduodenectomy (standard resection plus distal gastrectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy). All pathology specimens were reviewed, fully categorized, and staged. The postoperative morbidity, mortality, and survival data were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 299 patients randomized, 5 (1.7%) were subsequently excluded because their final pathology failed to reveal periampullary adenocarcinoma, leaving 294 patients for analysis (146 standard vs. 148 radical). The two groups were statistically similar with regard to age (median 67 years) and gender (54% male). All the patients in the radical group underwent distal gastric resection, while 86% of the patients in the standard group underwent pylorus preservation ( <.0001). The mean operative time in the radical group was 6.4 hours, compared to 5.9 hours in the standard group ( =.002). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to intraoperative blood loss, transfusion requirements (median zero units), location of primary tumor (57% pancreatic, 22% ampullary, 17% distal bile duct, 3% duodenal), mean tumor size (2.6 cm), positive lymph node status (74%), or positive margin status on final permanent section (10%). The mean total number of lymph nodes resected was significantly higher in the radical group. Of the 148 patients in the radical group, only 15% (n = 22) had metastatic adenocarcinoma in the resected retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and none had retroperitoneal nodes as the only site of lymph node involvement. One patient in the radical group with negative pancreaticoduodenectomy specimen lymph nodes had a micrometastasis to one perigastric lymph node. There were six perioperative deaths (4%) in the standard group versus three perioperative deaths (2%) in the radical group ( = NS). The overall complication rates were 29% for the standard group versus 43% for the radical group ( =.01), with patients in the radical group having significantly higher rates of early delayed gastric emptying and pancreatic fistula and a significantly longer mean postoperative stay. With a mean patient follow-up of 24 months, there were no significant differences in 1-, 3-, or 5-year and median survival when comparing the standard and radical groups. CONCLUSIONS: Radical (extended) pancreaticoduodenectomy can be performed with similar mortality but some increased morbidity compared to standard pancreaticoduodenectomy. The data to date fail to indicate that a survival benefit is derived from the addition of a distal gastrectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy to a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy.
UI - 11896229
AU - Levy AD; Murakata LA; Abbott RM; Rohrmann CA Jr
TI - From the archives of the AFIP. Benign tumors and tumorlike lesions of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
SO - Radiographics 2002 Mar-Apr;22(2):387-413
AD - Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000, USA.
A diverse spectrum of benign tumors and tumorlike lesions arises from the gallbladder and bile ducts, and despite their diversity, these lesions share common embryologic origins and histologic characteristics. Although these lesions are relatively uncommon, their importance lies in their ability to mimic malignant lesions in these locations. Benign neoplasms are derived from the epithelial and nonepithelial structures that compose the normal gallbladder and bile ducts. The epithelium gives rise to adenomas, cystadenomas, and the unusual condition of biliary papillomatosis. Granular cell tumors, neurofibromas, ganglioneuromas, paragangliomas, and leiomyomas are examples of benign tumors that may originate from nonepithelial structures. Tumorlike lesions are more commonly found in the gallbladder and include xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, adenomyomatous hyperplasia, cholesterol polyps, and heterotopias. In the clinical setting of a patient with nonspecific abdominal complaints or symptoms of biliary obstruction, the discovery of a gallbladder or bile duct polyp or mass, gallbladder wall thickening, or biliary stricture is most often indicative of malignancy. However, the differential diagnosis should include benign tumors and tumorlike lesions. The preoperative determination of a benign lesion may significantly alter therapy and patient prognosis.
UI - 12190678
AU - Yamaguchi R; Nagino M; Oda K; Kamiya J; Uesaka K; Nimura Y
TI - Perineural invasion has a negative impact on survival of patients with gallbladder carcinoma.
SO - Br J Surg 2002 Sep;89(9):1130-6
AD - Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of perineural invasion of gallbladder carcinoma remains unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence and mode of perineural invasion of gallbladder carcinoma and clarify its prognostic significance. METHODS: A clinicopathological study was conducted on 68 patients who underwent attempted curative resection for gallbladder carcinoma. According to the pathological tumour node metastasis (pTNM) classification of the Union Internacional Contra la Cancrum, there were five (7 per cent), nine (13 per cent), 20 (29 per cent) and 34 (50 per cent) patients with pT1, pT2, pT3 and pT4 disease respectively. Twenty patients (29 per cent) had pM1 disease, including involved para-aortic nodes, liver metastases and localized dissemination. RESULTS: The overall incidence of perineural invasion was 71 per cent (48 of 68 patients). Forty-four (96 per cent) of 46 patients with extrahepatic bile duct invasion had perineural invasion. Although several histological factors were associated with perineural invasion, multivariate analysis demonstrated that extrahepatic bile duct invasion was the only significant factor correlated with perineural invasion (odds ratio 99.0, P < 0.001). The perineural invasion index, defined as the ratio of the number of involved nerves to the total number of nerves examined, was significantly higher at the centre than in the proximal and distal parts of the tumour in the 46 patients with extrahepatic bile duct invasion (P < 0.001). The 5-year survival rate for patients with perineural invasion was significantly lower than that for patients with no invasion (7 versus 72 per cent; P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazard analysis identified perineural invasion (relative risk (RR) 5.3, P < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (RR 2.5, P = 0.008) as significant independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Perineural invasion is common in advanced gallbladder carcinoma and has a significant negative impact on patient survival.
UI - 11912682
AU - Chiche L; Metairie S
TI - [Fortuitous discovery of gallbladder cancer]
SO - J Chir (Paris) 2001 Dec;138(6):336-41
AD - Service de Chirurgie Digestive, CHU Caen cote de Nacre, F 14000 Caen. firstname.lastname@example.org
The prognosis of gallbladder cancer is basically dependent on the histological stage at diagnosis. In practice, the discovery of a small cancer of the bladder, generally during cholecystectomy give the patient a better care for curative treatment. The advent of laparoscopy has increased the number of cholecstectomies and could increase the frequency of this situation but also raises the difficult problem of metastatic dissemination. In the literature the figures on parietal metastasis after laparoscopy have ranged from 125% to 19%. The median delay to diagnosis of recurrence is 6 months. The cause of this phenomenon (role of the pneumoperitoneum) remains poorly elucidated. Risk factors for the development of a metastasis on the trocar orifice are: rupture of the gallbladder perioperatively and extraction of the gallbladder without protection. It is important to keep in mind this exceptional but serious risk and apply rigorous operative technique. In case of suspected gallbladder we do not advocate laparoscopy. Surgery (hepatectomy, lymphodenectomy, possibly resection of the biliary tract) would be indicted for all stages except pTis and T1a, taking into consideration the localization of the tumor and the patient's general status. It is also classical to recommend resection of the trocar orifices after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a dual challenge today for small-sized gallbladder cancer: improving treatment and avoiding poorer prognosis due to the specific problems raised by laparoscopy.
UI - 12195163
AU - Pandey M; Shukla VK
TI - Diet and gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.
SO - Eur J Cancer Prev 2002 Aug;11(4):365-8
AD - Department of Surgical Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Medical College PO, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 011, India. email@example.com
Cancer of the gallbladder is rare but fatal, and has an unusual geographic and demographic distribution. Gallstones and obesity have been suggested as possible risk factors. As diet is known to influence both these factors, we carried out the present study to evaluate the possible role of diet in gallbladder carcinogenesis. A case-control study involving 64 newly diagnosed cases of gallbladder cancer and 101 cases of gallstones was carried out. The dietary evaluation was carried out by the dietary recall method based on a preset questionnaire developed specifically for the present study, keeping in mind the common dietary habits prevailing in this part of the world. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for various dietary items. A significant reduction in odds ratio was seen with the consumption of radish (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.17-0.94), green chilli (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.21-0.94) and sweet potato (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.13-0.83) among vegetables, and mango (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.16-0.99), orange (OR; 0.45; 95% CI 0.22-0.93), melon (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.14-0.64) and papaya (OR 0.44; 95% 0.2-0.64) among fruits. A reduction in odds was also seen with the consumption of cruciferous vegetables, beans, onion and turnip, however the difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, an increase in the odds was observed with consumption of capsicum (OR 2.2), beef (OR 2.58), tea (OR 1.98), red chilli (OR 1.29) and mutton (OR 1.2), however the difference was statistically not significant. In conclusion, the results of the present study show a protective effect of vegetables and fruits on gallbladder carcinogenesis, but red meat (beef and mutton) was found to be associated with increased risk of gallbladder cancer.
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