National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: October 1, 2002
UI - 2790788
AU - Bunin GR; Meadows AT; Emanuel BS; Buckley JD; Woods WG; Hammond GD
TI - Pre- and postconception factors associated with sporadic heritable and nonheritable retinoblastoma.
SO - Cancer Res 1989 Oct 15;49(20):5730-5
AD - Children's Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
A matched case-control study of retinoblastoma was conducted by the Children's Cancer Study Group (CCSG) to investigate the hypotheses that postconception exposures affect the risk of the nonheritable (post-zygotic origin) form of this disease and that preconception exposures affect the risk of the sporadic heritable (prezygotic origin) form. Eligible cases were those patients with retinoblastoma diagnosed in 1982-1985 at any of the CCSG member hospitals. Cases were classified as familial heritable, sporadic heritable, or nonheritable based on family history, tumor laterality, and cytogenetic analysis. Telephone interviews of parents of 201 cases and their pair-matched controls selected by random digit dialing were completed. Analysis of possible risk factors for the 67 sporadic heritable cases and the 115 nonheritable cases was performed. (The 19 familial cases were excluded). For the nonheritable group, gestational exposure to X-ray [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, P = 0.08] and morning sickness medication (OR = 2.8, P = 0.02) and low maternal educational level (OR = 5.5, P = 0.03) were associated with increased risk; anemia (OR = 0.3, P = 0.02) and multivitamin use (OR = 0.4, P = 0.03) during pregnancy and periconceptional use of barrier contraceptive (OR = 0.1, P = 0.02) or spermicide (OR = 0.2, P = 0.02) were associated with decreased risk. In the sporadic heritable group, observations included a negative association with multivitamins during pregnancy (OR = 0.2, P = 0.02) and nonsignificant positive associations with preconception gonadal X-ray (maternal, OR = 2.0, P = 0.30; paternal, OR = 1.8, P = 0.42) and older parental age (case-control difference 1.0-1.2 years, P = 0.24-0.27). Many of the associations support study hypotheses, although the possibility of recall bias and chance findings suggest cautious interpretation.
UI - 12234974
AU - Nikitin AY; Liu CY; Flesken-Nikitin A; Chen CF; Chen PL; Lee WH
TI - Cell lineage-specific effects associated with multiple deficiencies of tumor susceptibility genes in Msh2(-/-)Rb(+/-) mice.
SO - Cancer Res 2002 Sep 15;62(18):5134-8
AD - Department of Molecular Medicine and Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207, USA.
Cooperative effects of genetic alterations are frequently observed during carcinogenesis.Mice carrying germ-line mutations in both Rb and p53 or Msh2 and p53 die earlier of tumors than mice with only one of these genes inactivated. Mice with a single wild-type Rb allele develop a syndrome of multiple neuroendocrine neoplasia, and inactivation of both alleles of Msh2 gene predisposes mice to gastrointestinal cancer, lymphomas and tumors of the skin that exhibit a mismatch repair defect. Here we showed that Msh2(-/-)Rb(+/-) mice developed lymphomas later than Msh2-deficient littermates, and the lymphomas observed in Msh2(-/-)Rb(+/-) mice have increased rates of apoptosis and rarely spread to other organs and tissues. In contrast to lymphomagenesis, courses of neuroendocrine, intestinal, and skin carcinogenesis were not significantly influenced by the Msh2(-/-)Rb(+/-) genetic combination. In these mice, neuroendocrine tumors displayed a loss of the remaining wild-type Rb allele but did not show microsatellite instability. On the other hand, the intestinal and skin tumors exhibited microsatellite instability but kept the remaining wild-type allele of Rb. Taken together, these data not only revealed a novel biological interaction between Rb and Msh2 but also cell lineage specificity effects associated with multiple deficiencies in these tumor susceptibility genes.
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